The Hindu Lead Article (A welcome debate on electoral reforms) – Jul 12, 2019

The Hindu Lead Article (A welcome debate on electoral reforms) – Jul 12, 2019

On July 3, a short-duration discussion in the Rajya Sabha on electoral reforms attracted my attention. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A welcome debate on electoral reforms) – Jul 12, 2019.

To read this article, click here.

This preview is provided here with permission.  

Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A welcome debate on electoral reforms) – Jul 12, 2019:

  1. constructive (adjective) – useful/helpful, productive, practical/effective/beneficial.
  2. passionate (adjective) – impassioned, emotional, spirited.
  3. vocal (adjective) – outspoken, forthright, direct/candid.
  4. hearten (verb) – encourage, cheer up, comfort.
  5. ideological (adjective) – dogmatic, doctrinal.
  6. surrogate (noun) – substitute, proxy, replacement/agent, representative.
  7. tenure (noun) – term, period, time.
  8. provision (noun) – term, clause, requirement.
  9. naive (adjective) – denoting (someone’s) lack of experience/knowledge; inexperienced/natural, innocent.
  10. collegium (noun) – The collegium system is the one in which the Chief Justice of India and a forum of four senior most judges of the Supreme Court recommend appointments & transfers of judges. There is no mention of the collegium in the Constitution of India.
  11. chronic (adjective) – constant, continuing, unending, persistent.
  12. crippling (adjective) – ruining/destroying, weakening, paralyzing.
  13. think tank (noun) – a panel of experts.
  14. regressive (adjective) – retrograde, retrogressive, unprogressive/negative.
  15. electoral bond (noun) – an electoral bond is designed to be a bearer instrument like a Promissory Note — in effect, it will be similar to a bank note that is payable to the bearer on demand and free of interest. It can be purchased by any citizen of India or a body incorporated in India. it allows limitless, secret donations to political parties, including (and especially) by corporations.
  16. farce (noun) – absurdity, sham, pretence/false display.
  17. crowdfunding (noun) – getting a large number of people to give small amounts of money to finance a business project or cause.
  18. cap (verb) – limit, restrict, put a ceiling on.
  19. unrealistic (adjective) – impractical, idealistic, unworkable.
  20. in accordance with (phrase) – in agreement with, in conformity with, in line with.
  21. passionately (adverb) – intensely, impassionedly, ardently, 
  22. advocate (verb) – support, champion, uphold.
  23. assert (verb) – declare, state, claim.
  24. strengthen (verb) – reinforce, make stronger, shore up.
  25. Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) – it is a method of providing feedback to voters using a ballot-less voting system. it consists of physical paper records of voter ballots as voters have cast them on an electronic voting system.
  26. fatigue (noun) – lack of energy, weariness, overtiredness.
  27. call for (phrasal verb) – require, necessitate, demand.
  28. white paper (noun) – a government report that informs people concisely about a complex issue.
  29. deliberation (noun) – careful consideration, thought/thinking, contemplation.
  30. vehemently (adverb) – forcefully, fiercely/vigorously, intensely.
  31. accountability (noun) – responsibility, liability, answerability.
  32. precedence (noun) – priority, superiority, primacy.
  33. proportional representation (noun) – an electoral system in which parties gain seats in Parliament in proportion to the number of votes it received in an election.
  34. put forth (verb) – suggest, advise, propose.
  35. first past the post (phrase) – it is an electoral system in which a candidate with the most votes in each constituency wins and becomes the MP/MLA for that seat.
  36. fidelity (noun) – accuracy, exactness, precision.
  37. radical (adjective) – unusual, irregular, atypical.
  38. binding (adjective) – compulsory, mandatory, statutory.
  39. advisory (noun) – statement, declaration, message.
  40. advocacy (noun) – endorsement, approval; backing/supporting.
  41. advocate (noun) – champion, upholder, supporter/proponent.
  42. broad-based (adjective) – wide-ranging, general.
  43. recalcitrant (adjective) – wilful, uncooperative, obstinately disobedient.
  44. music to one’s ears (phrase) – very pleasant, gratifying/satisfying to hear.
  45. obsession (noun) – passion, enthusiasm, preoccupation.
  46. deliberate (verb) – think about, ponder, consider.
  47. concrete (adjective) – definite, specific, conclusive.

Note:  

 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.bigotry, narrow-mindedness
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A welcome debate on electoral reforms) – Jul 12, 2019:

The Hindu Lead Article (A welcome debate on electoral reforms) – Jul 12, 2019 The Hindu Lead Article (A welcome debate on electoral reforms) – Jul 12, 2019

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