The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021

Imagine a town with a nuclear power plant close by. If its residents displayed signs of radiation sickness, the finger of suspicion will point towards the plant,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021:

  1. polarisation (noun) – separation of two contrasting groups (based on different opinions/beliefs).
  2. line (noun) – way, approach, method, procedure.
  3. hurdle (noun) – obstacle, difficulty, problem, barrier, impediment, obstruction, hindrance.
  4. source (noun) – origin, place of origin, starting point.
  5. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  6. close by (phrase) – near by, very near.
  7. point the finger at (phrase) – blame, denounce, inform against, accuse.
  8. suspicion (noun) – misgiving, doubt/qualm, distrust, scepticism.
  9. however much (phrase) – regardless of how much; despite how much.
  10. swear (verb) – promise, vow, guarantee, give one’s word.
  11. mirror (verb) – reflect, reproduce, imitate; follow.
  12. scenario (noun) – situation, background, context.
  13. waver (verb) – fluctuate, oscillate; be undecided, be irresolute, be indecisive. 
  14. dump (noun) – dumping ground (where a particular kind of waste is thrown).
  15. suspicious (adjective) – doubtful, unsure, dubious, wary, distrustful.
  16. circumstantial (adjective) – indirect, inconclusive, unprovable.
  17. circulate (verb) – communicate, pass on, publish, publicize.
  18. point to (verb) – indicate, suggest, denote.
  19. establishment (noun) – firm, company, enterprise, organization.
  20. close ranks (phrase) – support  each other (in a cause) and defend themselves from others.
  21. testify (verb) – confirm, prove, corroborate.
  22. probably (adverb) – most likely, in all likelihood, all things considered, perhaps.
  23. toxic (adjective) – fatal, deadly; poisonous, harmful, dangerous.
  24. critical (adjective) – disapproving, criticizing, fault-finding.
  25. hypothesis (noun) – theory, speculation, assumption, conjecture, premise; reason, basis, thinking, logic.
  26. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  27. school of thought (phrase) – a specific way of thinking; world view, ideology, principles.
  28. virology (noun) – the study of viruses and viral diseases.
  29. coronavirus (CoV) (noun) – a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. (Courtesy: WHO)
  30. drive (verb) – force, compel, impel, prompt.
  31. mine (noun) – excavation, quarry.
  32. ancestor (noun) – earlier version of something.
  33. mysteriously (adverb) – surprisingly, unexpectedly.
  34. reportedly (adverb) – supposedly, seemingly, apparently, allegedly.
  35. outbreak (noun) – outburst, flaring up, breakout, sudden appearance/occurrence of something.
  36. favour (verb) – support, back, champion, advocate, recommend, advise.
  37. stand up to (phrasal verb) – defy, confront, challenge, oppose openly, resist.
  38. rigorous (adjective) – careful, diligent, attentive, ultra-careful.
  39. scrutiny (noun) – examination, inspection, investigation.
  40. spillover (noun) – consequence, outcome, repercussion (an unexpected one).
  41. bat (noun) – the only flying, nocturnal mammal; Bats have been recognized as the natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses. (nocturnal means night-time, active at night).
  42. reservoir (noun) – In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms (living things-plants/animals) or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen (virus/bacteria) naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival.
  43. species (noun) – living things (organisms); A group/breed/family of living organisms (animals & plants) with the individual having the same quality & can breed (in nature).
  44. intermediary (noun) – mediator, go-between, intervenor.
  45. in turn (phrase) – in succession, sequentially.
  46. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (noun) – SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to be an animal virus from an as-yet-uncertain animal reservoir, perhaps bats, that spread to other animals (civet cats). It is a viral (human-to-human transmission) that can cause severe respiratory illness or death.
  47. predecessor (noun) – previous holder of the post; forerunner, precursor, antecedent.
  48. infectious (adjective) – spreading, contagious, communicable, transmittable.
  49. Ebola (noun) – Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a rare but severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. (Courtesy: WHO)
  50. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (noun) – Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012.
  51. Nipah virus (noun) – a zoonotic virus (it is transmitted from animals to humans) and can also be transmitted through contaminated food or directly between people.
  52. so far (phrase) – until now, up to the present, up to this point.
  53. archaeologist (noun) – an expert on history who gains expertise through experience with historical documents and artifacts.
  54. painstakingly (adverb) – with great care & thoroughness.
  55. dig (verb) – excavate.
  56. debris (noun) – broken pieces, rubble, wreckage (of rock).
  57. civilization (noun) – human development, advancement, culture.
  58. virologist (noun) – a specialist in virology (the study of viruses and viral diseases).
  59. epidemiologist (noun) – an expert in the study of how disease spreads and can be controlled.
  60. sift (verb) – search through, look through, examine.
  61. genetic (adjective) – relating to genes/genetics.
  62. sequence (noun) – the complete order of compounds/building blocks (nucleotides) of nucleic acids, such as RNA or DNA.
  63. genome (noun) – the genetic material (a complete set of DNA, including all of its genes) of an organism. The sum total of the genetic material of a cell or an organism.
  64. genome sequence (noun) – a process that determines the order, or sequence, of the DNA (nucleotides i.e., A, C, G and U) in each of the genes present in the virus’s genome.
  65. lead to (verb) – result in, cause, bring about, call forth, give rise to, produce.
  66. diverse (adjective) – very different, varying, multiple.
  67. strain (noun) – variety, kind, type; variant, mutant.
  68. sound (verb) – appear, look, seem.
  69. straightforward (adjective) – uncomplicated, simple, easy, effortless, painless, undemanding.
  70. likely (adverb) – probably, in all probability, presumably, doubtlessly.
  71. patient zero (noun) – Also known as an index case, patient zero is a term used to describe the first human infected by a viral or bacterial disease in an outbreak. 
  72. cluster (noun) – a group (of people/things considered as a unit). (an aggregation of cases of a disease. A coronavirus cluster occurs when there is a concentration of infections in the same area at the same time).
  73. slaughter (verb) – murder, kill, cut down.
  74. merely (adverb) – only, simply, just.
  75. amplify (verb) – increase, raise, intensify, escalate.
  76. unearthing (noun) – discovering, uncovering, finding, revealing.
  77. classification (noun) – categorization, classifying, grouping sorting.
  78. the way forward (phrase) -the procedure to be followed in future.
  79. elbow (verb) – push, nudge, jostle, force.
  80. conspiracy (noun) – (unlawful) plan/plot, intrigue, collaboration/deception, collusion.
  81. come out (phrasal verb) – emerge, transpire (as a result).
  82. mandate (noun) – authority, approval, ratification, endorsement.
  83. march (verb) – move forward, advance, progress.
  84. National Institute of Virology (NIV) (noun) – The National Institute of Virology is one of the major Institutes of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). It was established at Pune, Maharashtra State in 1952 as Virus Research Centre (VRC) to do intensive training and research in virology in India.
  85. supposed (adjective) – seeming, alleged, claimed, purported, ostensible.
  86. wrongdoing (noun) – fault, error, lapse; misconduct, malpractice, misdeed.
  87. dismiss (verb) – disregard, brush off, shrug off, reject, deny, repudiate, spurn.
  88. exposure (noun) – In medicine, the condition of being subjected to something (infectious agents & others).
  89. antibody (noun) – it is also called ‘immunoglobulin’; a protective protein produced mainly by plasma (blood) cells in the immune system in response to the presence of antigens (disease causing organisms (bacteria & viruses) and other harmful/toxic foreign substances like insect venom).
  90. put aside (phrasal verb) – disregard, set aside, ignore, pay no heed to, forget, discount, shrug off.

Note:   

 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, theories of origin, and a place for science) – Jul 06, 2021

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