The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021

Vaccines have proven to be effective against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in preventing serious illness and death. In an article published in Nature Medicine on June 9, an analysis of data from the United Kingdom,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021:

  1. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  2. strike a balance (phrase) – find a fair & reasonable line of action between two contrasting things.
  3. exigency (noun) – (urgent) need, demand, urgency.
  4. constraint (noun) – restriction, limitation, restraint.
  5. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  6. variant (noun) – different or form or version or mutant of something (virus).
  7. double mutant/B.1.617 (noun) – a unique “double mutant” coronavirus variant – with a combination of mutations not seen anywhere else in the world – has been found in India. The ‘double mutant’ virus that as having a bearing on the spread of the pandemic in India, has a formal scientific classification: B.1.617. (The UK Variant (Alpha variant) has a formal scientific classification: B.1.1.7. The South Africa Variant (Beta variant) has a formal scientific classification: B.1.351. The Brazil Variant (Gamma variant) has a formal scientific classification: P.1).
  8. predominant (adjective) – dominant, more powerful.
  9. Oxford vaccine/Covishield (noun) – (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or (AZD1222) is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca, UK Ltd. (named Covishield in India). Serum Institute of India (SII), a biotechnology company has partnered with global pharma giant AstraZeneca and Oxford University for this vaccine candidate ‘Covidshield’.
  10. Public Health England (PHE) (noun) – The Public Health England (PHE) was set up on 1 April 2013 as an operationally autonomous executive agency of the Department of Health. Its mission is to protect and improve the nation’s health and to address inequalities through working with national and local government, the National Health Service (NHS), industry and the voluntary and community sector.
  11. hospitalisation (noun) – the act of taking (or) admitting someone to (or) in hospital for treatment.
  12. delta variant/B.1.617.2 (noun) – a variant of the coronavirus, first identified in India, is renamed as the ‘Delta variant’ by the World Health Organization (WHO) and this variant is reclassified as Variant of Concern (VOC). The B.1.617.1 strain has been reclassified to a Variant of Interest (VOI) and labelled variant “Kappa”.
  13. vaccinate (verb) – inoculate, administer, introduce (with a vaccine to provide immunity against a disease).
  14. predominantly (adverb) – mainly, mostly.
  15. vaccination (noun) – treatment with a vaccine to protect against a particular disease; immunization.
  16. sequence (noun) – the complete order of compounds/building blocks (nucleotides) of nucleic acids, such as RNA or DNA.
  17. genome (noun) – the genetic material (a complete set of DNA, including all of its genes) of an organism. The sum total of the genetic material of a cell or an organism.
  18. genome sequence (noun) – a process that determines the order, or sequence, of the DNA (nucleotides i.e., A, C, G and U) in each of the genes present in the virus’s genome.
  19. breakthrough infections (noun) – people getting infections after they are fully vaccinated is when the infections are caused by circulating virus variants, with potential immune escape mechanism, which might reduce the efficacy of vaccines. These are called “vaccine breakthrough infections.”
  20. probably (adverb) – most likely, in all likelihood, all things considered, perhaps.
  21. strain (noun) – variety, kind, type; variant, mutant.
  22. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  23. point of view (noun) – opinion, view, viewpoint, standpoint.
  24. public health (noun) – the branch of medicine handling public health; public health is also the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities through education, policy-making, and research for disease and injury prevention.
  25. productivity (noun) – efficiency output, yield.
  26. social interaction (noun) – the process of reciprocal influence exercised by individuals over one another during social encounters. Usually, it refers to face-to-face encounters in which people are physically present with one another for a specified duration.
  27. societal (adjective) – relating to society.
  28. potential (adjective) – possible, likely, prospective, probable.
  29. prioritisation (noun) – the activity that arranges items or activities in order of importance relative to each other.
  30. align (with) (verb) – join up with, link up with, combine with.
  31. proportion (noun) – ratio, size, magnitude.
  32. possibly (adverb) – perhaps, maybe, it is possible.
  33. herd immunity (noun) – also known as “population immunity”; it refers to a means (ways) of protecting a whole community from disease by immunizing a critical mass of its populace (population). It is also defined as a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population is immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
  34. predictability (noun) – certainty, foregone conclusion, predictable result.
  35. Swedish COVID-19 strategy (noun) it entailed/involved strong initial confidence in herd immunity (although not officially stated), individual responsibility, evidence based medicine and substantial neglect to cooperate internationally. 
  36. Great Barrington declaration (noun) a statement (by infectious disease epidemiologists and public health scientists) advocating an alternative approach to the COVID-19 pandemic which involves “Focused Protection” of those most at risk and seeks to avoid or minimize the societal harm of the COVID-19 policies/lockdowns.
  37. opprobrium (noun) – condemnation, harsh criticism, censure, castigation.
  38. commentator (noun) – critic, analyst, observer.
  39. callous (adjective) – uncaring, heartless, merciless, unfeeling, insensitive, compassionless, inhumane.
  40. attribute (noun) – quality, feature, characteristic, trait, element, aspect.
  41. imply (verb) – suggest, hint, intimate.
  42. mortality (noun) – (in a particular time/for a cause) the rate/number of death.
  43. stratification (noun) – arrangement, classification, categorization/grouping.
  44. co-morbidity (noun) – In medicine, co-morbidity is the presence of one or more additional conditions (diseases) co-occurring/co-existing with a primary condition (disease).
  45. hypertension (noun) – high blood pressure.
  46. nonetheless (adverb) – notwithstanding, nevertheless, in spite of that/however.
  47. descending (adjective) – moving downwards.
  48. tier (noun) – layer, level.
  49. keep pace with (phrase) – progress at the same speed as.
  50. road map (noun) – plan/strategy to do something successfully.
  51. reluctance (noun) – unwillingness, disinclination, hesitation.
  52. mechanism (noun) – procedure, process, method, technique.
  53. (be) couple with (verb) – combine, integrate, connect, incorporate, link.
  54. lead to (verb) – result in, cause, bring on, give rise to.
  55. cope with (verb) – deal withgrapple with, handle/manage.
  56. certainty (noun) – confidence, sureness, conviction, certitude.
  57. anxiety (noun) – concern, worry, disquiet.
  58. depression (noun) –misery, sadness, unhappiness, gloominess, dejection, hopelessness.
  59. move forward (phrase) – make progress/strides; proceed, advance, improve
  60. unlikely (adjective) – doubtful, implausible, improbable, questionable.
  61. population pyramid (noun) – it is a way to visualize two variables: age and sex. They are used by demographers, who study populations. It is a graph that shows the distribution of ages across a population divided down the center between male and female members of the population.
  62. extrapolate (verb) – forecast, predict, reckon, calculate, estimate. (extrapolation is an estimation of a value based on extending a known sequence of values or facts beyond the area that is certainly known).
  63. exposure (noun) – In medicine, the condition of being subjected to something (infectious agents & others).
  64. feasible (adjective) – practicable, viable, realistic.
  65. immunise (verb) – vaccinate, inoculate, inject (a vaccine).
  66. build on (phrasal verb) – develop, enhance, expand on.
  67. empower (verb) – enable, equip, give the power to; authorize, entitle, permit, allow.
  68. centralised (adjective) – controlled by a single authority.
  69. cede (verb) – lose, give up, concede (power/authority).
  70. CoWIN (noun) – a digital platform (app) developed by Union Health Ministry, India to help monitor the entire COVID-19 vaccination process in India.
  71. circumstances (noun) – situation, condition, context.
  72. design (verb) – create, plan, formulate, think up.
  73. solely (adverb) – only.
  74. credible (adjective) – acceptable, trustworthy, reliable, dependable; believable, plausible, reasonable.
  75. speculative (adjective) – risky, unsafe, uncertain, unpredictable.
  76. misinformation (noun) – disinformation, false information, alternative fact, fake news, false rumour.
  77. lack of (noun) – absence, deficiency, scarcity, dearth.
  78. granular (adjective) – detailed, precise, minute.
  79. interpretable (adjective) – accountable, decipherable, explainable.
  80. normalcy (noun) – a normal condition; normality, regularity.

Note:    

 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (What needs to be done with vaccines) – Jun 19, 2021

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