The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021

The Indian Constitution may face an unprecedented crisis in 2026 when there will be a dramatic change in the composition of the Lok Sabha. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021:

  1. federalism/federal framework/system (noun) – a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
  2. compact (noun) – agreement, deal, contract, settlement.
  3. unprecedented (adjective) – not done or experienced before.
  4. composition (noun) – formation, structure, construction, organization.
  5. reflect (verb) – indicate, represent; express, communicate. 
  6. census (noun) – an official survey, particularly of a population.
  7. take into account (phrase) – consider, take into consideration, have regard to, reckon with.
  8. prosperous (adjective) – flourishing, thriving, successful, burgeoning.
  9. freeze (noun) – suspension.
  10. seismic shift (noun) – a drastic/major change.
  11. resentment (noun) – bitterness, indignation, irritation, enmity, hatred.
  12. call for (phrasal verb) – require, publicly ask/necessitate, demand.
  13. realignment (noun) – reorganisation, reordering, reshuffle.
  14. federal (adjective) – relating to a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
  15. Article 1 of the Indian Constitution (noun) – It says India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States. The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule. The territory of India shall comprise – a) the territories of the States; b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and c) such other territories as may be acquired.
  16. deliberate (adjective) – careful, cautious, unhurried, conscious, done on purpose.
  17. make up (phrasal verb) – comprise, form, constitute.
  18. admittedly (adverb) – actually, truly/verily, indeed.
  19. federation (noun) –  a system of government in which a written constitution distributes power and responsibility between a national government and a number of state or regional governments.
  20. lead up to (phrasal verb) – precede, come/go before, pave the way for; be the cause/reason of something.
  21. linguistic (adjective) – relating to language; lingual.
  22. statehood (noun) – the condition of being an independent state.
  23. indeed (adverb) – in fact, actually, undeniably.
  24. polity (noun) – a politically organized society.
  25. plural (adjective) – relating to a system in which people co-exist in harmony irrespective of various differences.
  26. linguistically (adverb) – in a method correlating with language.
  27. ethnically (adverb) – culturally, racially.
  28. self-contained (adjective) – independent, separate, self-sufficient, self-reliant.
  29. turn to (phrasal verb) – have recourse to, look to, resort to.
  30. inherent (adjective) – implicit, intrinsic, fundamental, basic.
  31. contradiction (noun) – a combination of statements opposed to one another.
  32. comprehend (verb) – understand, realize, fathom.
  33. set-up (noun) – system, structure, organization, arrangement, framework.
  34. entitle (verb) – allow, permit, grant.
  35. governance (noun) – administration.
  36. imply (verb) – suggest, hint, intimate.
  37. pie (noun) – a total amount of something to be divided in shares.
  38. say (noun) – influence, sway, weight, authority, voice.
  39. irrelevant (adjective) – immaterial, unrelated, not germane, unimportant/insignificant.
  40. assuage (verb) – alleviate, soothe, mitigate, lessen, decrease, reduce, lower.
  41. compromise (noun) – agreement, understanding, settlement.
  42. Senate (noun) – the upper house or chamber in some bicameral legislative systems. (for example in the US).
  43. outsized (adjective) – very largemassive, enormous.
  44. deplorably (adverb) – regrettably, unfortunately, awfully.
  45. slave-owning (adjective) – relating to the states in the U.S before 1865 where in which slavery and the slave trade were legal.
  46. confer (verb) – present, give, grant.
  47. Three-Fifths Compromise (noun) – it was an agreement, made at the U. S. Constitutional Convention, 1787, that allowed three-fifths of the slave population of the Southern states would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
  48. bedrock (noun) – core, basis/base, foundation.
  49. rid someone/something of (verb) – clear, free, make free.
  50. slavery (noun) – captivity, bondage, enslavement.
  51. dramatically (adverb) – greatly, largely.
  52. scope (noun) – opportunity, possibility, chance.
  53. intervention (noun) – the process of intervening in something; involvement, interference.
  54. sever (verb) – divide, cut off, break off, discontinue.
  55. causational (adjective) – relating to the action of causing something.
  56. popular vote (noun) – the popular vote is simply the total votes cast for each candidate across the whole of the United States. The candidate with the most votes across the nation is said to have won the popular vote.
  57. filibuster (noun) – a tactic mainly in the United States’ Senate to delay or block legislative action on a bill or other matter by debating it at length; a way of delaying/preventing a vote on a bill.
  58. legislation (noun) – body of laws, rules, regulations, statutes.
  59. seek (verb) – try, aim, attempt.
  60. mitigate (verb) – alleviate, reduce, diminish, lessen.
  61. pathology (noun) – abnormality, unhealthiness, malfunction.
  62. facilitate (verb) – make easy, make possible, enable; assist, help/aid.
  63. entrench (verb) – ingrain, establish, embed.
  64. sparsely (adverb) – scantily, scarcely, infrequently.
  65. reconciliation (noun) – resolution, settlement, agreement, compromise.
  66. quasi- (combining form) – to a certain degree, to a certain extent, partly, relatively, somewhat.
  67. sui generis (adjective) – Latin, literally ‘of its own kind’; unique, individual, special.
  68. diversity (noun) – the state/condition of having many different types of something; variety, variation, difference, range.
  69. inevitable (adjective) – unavoidable, unpreventable, inescapable, certain, sure to happen.
  70. fissiparous (adjective) – divisive, separatist, polarising.
  71. chequered (adjective) – varied, mixed, eventful.
  72. unfounded (adjective) – groundless, baseless, unjustified.
  73. if at all (phrase) – It indicates that something is unlikely to happen, if it does happen, but it happens in a restricted way.
  74. recognition (noun) – acknowledgement, acceptance, admission; realization.
  75. result in (phrasal verb) – cause, bring on, bring about, call forth, give rise to.
  76. separatist (noun) – dissident, nonconformist, sectarian.
  77. autonomy (noun) – independence, freedom; self-governmentself-rule.
  78. inevitably (adverb) – unavoidably, certainly, definitely.
  79. implications (noun) – consequence/outcome, ramification, repercussion.
  80. chauvinism (noun) – excessive nationalism, sectarianism, isolationism.
  81. thorny (adjective) – problematic, tricky, delicate, controversial.
  82. down the road (phrase) – in the future.
  83. perpetuate (verb) – cause to continue something indefinitely, particularly a bad situation, an attitude/idea/belief, etc; keep going, keep in existence, extend/prolong.
  84. fine-tune (verb) – modify, alter, regulate.
  85. vis-à-vis (preposition) – concerning, with regard to, in relation to, as/in comparison with, in connection with (Vis-à-vis from Latin via. French, means literally “face-to-face).
  86. provision (noun) – clause, (legal) term, stipulation, requirement, condition.
  87. empower (verb) – authorize, entitle, permit, allow.
  88. disintegration (noun) – breakdown, fragmentation, collapse.
  89. on the contrary (phrase) – conversely, just the opposite.
  90. bound to (adjective) – certain, sure, very likely, guaranteed.
  91. prosperity (noun) – success, welfare, comfort, security, well-being, fortune.
  92. The 73rd and the 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts (CAA), 1992 (noun) – These acts prescribe the states to establish a three-tier system of Panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels and Municipalities in the urban areas respectively. States are expected to devolve adequate powers, responsibilities and finances upon these bodies so as to enable them to prepare plans and implement schemes for economic development and social justice. These Acts provide a basic framework of decentralisation of powers and authorities to the Panchayati Raj/Municipal bodies at different levels.
  93. majoritarian (adjective) – relating to a philosophy that states that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language, social class, or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy (priority) in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society.
  94. adversely (adverb) – unfavourably, disadvantageously, badly.
  95. consent (noun) – agreement, assent, concurrence, acceptance, approval.
  96. salutary (adjective) – good, helpful/useful, beneficial, practical, valuable.
  97. in this regard (phrase) – in connection with the aspect/consideration/point referred to earlier.
  98. inviolate (adjective) – undamaged, unstained, perfect.
  99. comprehensive (adjective) – all-inclusive, broad-based; all-embracing, universal, complete.
  100. consensus (noun) – an idea or opinion that is shared by all the people in a group.
  101. unanimity (noun) – agreement, accord, harmony, concord, unity.
  102. break up (phrasal verb) – separate, disband.
  103. premise (noun) – belief, thought.
  104. underlie (verb) – be the cause of, be the basis of, be the fundamental of.
  105. overbearing (adjective) – dominating, autocratic, oppressive, high-handed.
  106. patriotism (noun) – devoted love and support for country; nationalism, national loyalty.
  107. devolution (noun) – decentralization, delegation, distribution, pride/morale.
  108. strain (verb) – damage, impair.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The upcoming crisis in Indian federalism) – Jul 14, 2021

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