The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional) – Jun 29, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional) – Jun 29, 2021

In Vinod Dua’s case (2021), the Supreme Court of India has reaffirmed the law of sedition laid down in Kedar Nath Singh (1962) and directed governments to adhere to it. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional) – Jun 29, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional) – Jun 29, 2021:

  1. sedition (noun) – incitement (to riot/rebellion), agitation, trouble making/provocation (against the established government/authority).
  2. unconstitutional (adjective) – undemocratic, autocratic, dictatorial, totalitarian.
  3. Kedar Nath judgment (1962) (noun) – In the landmark 1962 Kedar Nath Singh case, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of the sedition law as defined in Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code, it attempted to restrict its scope for misuse. The court held that unless accompanied by an incitement or call for violence, criticism of the government cannot be labelled sedition.
  4. expression (noun) – voicing, utterance, articulation, statement.
  5. reaffirm (verb) – assert, state, say again strongly.
  6. lay down (phrasal verb) – formulate, stipulate, frame, draw up.
  7. adhere to (verb) – abide by, follow, obey, comply with.
  8. reaffirmation (noun) – reassertion, reestablishment, confirmation, endorsement.
  9. uphold (verb) – confirm, endorse/approve, vindicate/validate.
  10. Section 124A of the IPC (noun) – Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code lays down the punishment for sedition.
  11. Indian Penal Code (IPC) (noun) – The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is the official criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law. The draft was passed into law on 6 October 1860. The Code came into operation on 1 January 1862. The Indian Penal Code of 1860, subdivided into 23 chapters, comprises 511 sections. IPC deals with crimes and punishments.
  12. read down (phrase) – an instance of a court urging that a statute must be construed/interpreted legally, if fairly possible, so as to save it from being declared illegal.
  13. provision (noun) – clause, requirement, condition.
  14. hold (verb) – rule, decide.
  15. incite (verb) – prompt, induce, impel, influence.
  16. mischief (noun) – misbehaviour, misconduct; impairment, detriment, trouble.
  17. disorder (noun) – unrest, disruption, upheaval, turmoil, mayhem.
  18. disaffection (noun) – dissatisfaction, disgruntlement, discontent.
  19. categorise (verb) – classify, label, list.
  20. seditious (adjective) – inciting, agitating, fomenting, troublemaking, provocative, inflammatory, agitational.
  21. gist (noun) – the real point; essence, main idea, main theme, central idea.
  22. offence (noun) – crime, illegal/unlawful act, wrongdoing.
  23. contempt (noun) – it refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court (& its officers).
  24. hatred (noun) – enmity, antipathy, antagonism, hostility, resentment, aversion.
  25. excite (verb) – provoke, incite, trigger, instigate, foment, cause.
  26. disloyalty (noun) – breach of faith/trust, betrayal, unfaithfulness, falseness.
  27. enmity (noun) – hostility, opposition, hatred/hate, bitterness.
  28. measure (noun) – action, step, procedure.
  29. illustration (noun) – example, exemplification, demonstration, representative case.
  30. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  31. invariably (adverb) – always, every time, each time.
  32. consistently (adverb) – always, each time, invariably.
  33. liable to (adjective) – responsible, accountable, answerable, chargeable.
  34. amply (adverb) – sufficiently, satisfactorily, (more than) enough.
  35. assertion (noun) – declaration, statement, announcement, affirmation.
  36. lead to (verb) – result in, cause, bring about, call forth, give rise to, produce.
  37. merely (adverb) – only, simply, just.
  38. authorities (noun) – the government, the administration, the establishment, the bureaucracy, the regime/system.
  39. strike down (phrasal verb) – abolish, annul, nullify (a law or regulation).
  40. justification (noun) – reason, cause, basis, rationale, premise.
  41. Article 19(1) (a) of the Constitution of India (noun) – It confers the Fundamental Right of freedom of speech and expression, the most valuable right of free citizens of a free country.
  42. confer (verb) – present, give, grant.
  43. Article 19(2) of the Constitution of India (noun) – It authorises the government to impose, by law, reasonable restrictions upon the freedom of speech and expression “in the interests of… public order.”
  44. on the ground (phrase) – in a situation/place where things are happening really/practically.
  45. context (noun) – circumstances, conditions, situation.
  46. Constituent Assembly (noun) – The Constituent Assembly of India, consisting of indirectly elected representatives, was established to draft a constitution for India. It existed for approx. three years, the first parliament of India after independence in 1947. 
  47. sway (verb) – influence, bias, persuade.
  48. take advantage of (phrase) – make use of, utilize, put to use, use, benefit from, capitalize on, draw on.
  49. public order (noun) – it is essentially the absence of disorder – the quiet and orderly behaviour of people in public space. It involves people behaving sensibly and rationally, and respecting others.
  50. utterance (noun) – remark, comment, expression, statement.
  51. statute (noun) – act/law, regulation, rule (written & laid down by the legislature).
  52. irony (noun) – paradox, incongruity, peculiarity; contradiction, a strange/funny situation where things are happening the other way around (than expected).
  53. come into force (phrase) – come to effect (a new law, rule, change, etc.).
  54. soften (verb) – make less severe, moderate, mitigate.
  55. interpretation (noun) – explanation, elucidation, clarification, definition; examination, evaluation, analysis.  
  56. sole (adjective) – only.
  57. object (noun) – purpose, objective, aim, goal, target.
  58. suppress (verb) – control, contain, restrain, hide, conceal, cover up.
  59. voice (noun) – expression; opinion, view.
  60. Bill (noun) – A Bill is a draft statute that becomes law after it is passed by both the Houses of Parliament and assented to by the President. All legislative proposals are brought before Parliament in the forms of Bills.
  61. disposition (noun) – inclination, tendency, propensity, bias.
  62. penal (adjective) – (of an activity) punishable by law; disciplinary, punitive, corrective.
  63. draconian (adjective) – (of laws or punishments) extremely harsh, severe, strict, stringent, tough.
  64. colonial (adjective) – relating to the period of the British colonies.
  65. reveal (verb) – exhibit, disclose, uncover, expose to view.
  66. proposition (noun) – premise, idea, statement.
  67. the Privy Council (noun) – a formal body of advisers to the sovereign of the United Kingdom. 
  68. incitement (noun) – provocation, persuasion, inducement.
  69. rebellion (noun) – uprising, revolt, insurrection, insurgency.
  70. potential (noun) – capability, capacity, ability.
  71. trial (noun) – legal action, court case, lawsuit.
  72. jury (noun) – a body of people (sworn to give a verdict).
  73. make clear (phrase) – explain, clarify, elucidate.
  74. absolutely (adverb) – completely, totally, utterly.
  75. thereby (adverb) – as a result of that.
  76. ingredient (noun) – element, part, component.
  77. on the one hand (phrase) – it is used to introduce the first of two contrasting different, points, facts, or ways of looking at something.  It is always followed later by “on the other hand” or ‘on the other’.
  78. overwhelming (adjective) – very strong, profound, compelling.
  79. in order to (phrase) – with the purpose/aim of.
  80. reasoning (noun) – reason, rationale, argument, premise.
  81. apprehension (noun) – anxiety, worry, disquiet, concern, tension.
  82. affirm (verb) – uphold, ratify, validate, justify, support, endorse.
  83. close the door on (phrase) – to no longer thinking about/dealing something.
  84. pernicious (adjective) – harmful, damaging, destructive.
  85. tendency (noun) – inclination, disposition, penchant.
  86. step in (phrasal verb) – intervene, become involved, get involved, act, take action.
  87. enforcement (noun) – imposition, implementation, execution.
  88. machinery (noun) – system, apparatus, structure.
  89. take away (phrasal verb) – remove, take out, deprive, divest, strip.
  90. inalienable (adjective) – inviolable/unchallengeable, absolute/inherent.
  91. penalise (verb) – punish, discipline, mete out punishment to, sentence.
  92. bench (noun) – a court of law with a number of judges.

Note:   

 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional) – Jun 29, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional)  – Jun 29, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional)  – Jun 29, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional)  – Jun 29, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The law of sedition is unconstitutional)  – Jun 29, 2021

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