The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021

The democracy movement in Myanmar is at a critical juncture. On February 1, 2021, the military launched a coup d’état to overthrow the democratically elected government led by Aung San Suu Kyi’s party, the National League for Democracy. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021:

  1. enforced (adjective) – compulsory, compelled.
  2. enforced disappearance (noun) – ‘enforced disappearance’ is considered to be the arrest, detention, abduction or any other form of deprivation of liberty by agents of the State or by persons or groups of persons acting with the authorization, support or acquiescence of the State, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of liberty or by concealment of the fate or whereabouts of the disappeared person, which places such a person outside the protection of the law.
  3. state (noun) – the government, the regime, the establishment.
  4. Criminal Law (noun) – a complex system of laws concerned with the punishment of individuals who commit crimes.
  5. atrocity (noun) – act of barbarity/brutality, cruelty, inhumanity.
  6. juncture (noun) – point in time, time/moment, stage.
  7. coup d’état (noun) –  a sudden and violent regime change, seizure of power, (illegal) takeover of power; coup, putsch.
  8. overthrow (verb) – remove, topple, oust, unseat, bring down.
  9. suppress (verb) – control, stifle, repress, crush, quell, overpower.
  10. carry out (phrasal verb) – conduct, perform, execute.
  11. unimaginable (adjective) – unthinkable, inconceivable, unbelievable.
  12. oppression (noun) – persecution, abuse, ill-treatment, suppression.
  13. freedom of expression (noun) – the ability of an individual or group of individuals to express their beliefs, thoughts, ideas, and emotions about different issues free from government censorship,  restraint, or legal penalty.
  14. restoration (noun) – reinstitution, re-establishment, reinstallation.
  15. United Nations Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances (WGEID) (noun) – The UN Commission on Human Rights established the Working Group in 1980 with Resolution 20 (XXXVI). It was established to examine questions relevant to enforced or involuntary disappearances of persons. One of the Working Group’s primary tasks is to assist families in determining the fate or whereabouts of their family members who are reportedly disappeared.
  16. plethora (noun) – a lot, too many; excess, abundance, surplus.
  17. arbitrary (adjective) – whimsical, capriciousrandom, casual; tyrannical, autocratic, dictatorial, authoritarian, draconian, anti-democratic.
  18. detention (noun) – imprisonment, confinement/incarceration, captivity, custody.
  19. arbitrary detention (noun) – the detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that they committed a crime against legal statute, or in which there has been no proper due process of law or order.
  20. deteriorate (verb) – worsen, get worse, decline, degenerate.
  21. regime (noun) – government.
  22. mistaken (noun) – wrong, erroneous, inaccurate, incorrect.
  23. notion (noun) – idea, belief, opinion, view.
  24. regretfully (adverb) – sadly, sorrowfully, unhappily/dismally.
  25. civil society (noun) – civil society refers to space for collective action around shared interests, purposes, and values, generally distinct from government and commercial for-profit actors.
  26. autonomous (adjective) – self-governing, independent, self-determining.
  27. pretext (noun) – false excuse, ostensible reason, alleged reason.
  28. ethnic (adjective) – relating to a population subgroup (cultural, national, traditional/folk) with a common national or cultural tradition.
  29. vocational (adjective) – relating to job or work & its related skills.
  30. whereabouts (noun) – location, position, situation.
  31. trivial (adjective) – unimportant, superficial, insignificant.
  32. lead to (verb) – result in, cause, bring about, call forth, give rise to, produce.
  33. Residential Surveillance at a Designated Location (RSDL) (noun) – a form of detention regularly used by authorities in the People’s Republic of China against individuals accused of endangering state security.
  34. Article 73 of the amended Criminal Procedure Law (China) (noun) –  According to Article 73 of the Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China, residential surveillance may be enforced at a designated location – in other words in secret and outside the protection of the law – in cases involving endangering national security, terrorism, or serious bribery, and when enforcement in the individual’s actual residence may impede the investigation.
  35. endanger (verb) – imperil, jeopardize, risk.
  36. incommunicado (adjective) – not able to communicate with others.
  37. amount to (verb) – be equal to, be equivalent to, represent.
  38. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  39. accompany (verb) – occur with, coincide with, coexist with, go with.
  40. confront (verb) – face, address, tackle, deal with.
  41. impunity (noun) – immunity, exemption/freedom from punishment, special treatment.
  42. disheartening (adjective) – discouraging, dispiriting, demoralizing.
  43. point out (phrasal verb) – identify, mention, indicate, draw attention to.
  44. in the name of (phrase) – for the sake of, at the behest of.
  45. counter-terrorism (noun) – anti-terrorism; actions taken to combat or prevent terrorism.
  46. Dirty War (noun) – It is the name used by the military junta or civic-military dictatorship of Argentina for the period of state terrorism in Argentina from 1976 to 1983. It is estimated that between 9,000 and 30,000 people were killed or disappeared, many of whom were impossible to formally report due to the nature of state terrorism.
  47. dictatorship (noun) – totalitarianism, absolute rule, autocracy.
  48. gross (adjective) – flagrant, overt, blatant, glaring, obvious/ evident.
  49. systematic (adjective) – methodical, structured, organized, well ordered, planned.
  50. violation (noun) – breach, breaking, non-observance.
  51. mechanism (noun) – procedure, process, method, technique.
  52. constituent (noun) – integral part/unit.
  53. characterise (verb) – identify, depict, describe.
  54. deprivation (noun) – dispossession, withdrawal, removal, taking away.
  55. detain (verb) – imprison, jail, incarcerate.
  56. abduct (verb) – kidnap, hold hostage, hijack.
  57. deprive of (verb) – dispossess, strip of, deny, prevent from having.
  58. ground (noun) – reason, cause, basis, factor.
  59. seek (verb) –ask for, appeal, request.
  60. on behalf of (phrase) – in the interests of, in support of, for the benefit of.
  61. consent (noun) – agreement, assent, approval.
  62. acquiescence (noun) – consent/approval, agreement, acceptance.
  63. context (noun) – circumstances, conditions, situation.
  64. acknowledge (verb) – admit, accept, recognize, realize.
  65. remedial (adjective) – corrective, restorative, reparative.
  66. measure (noun) – action, step, procedure.
  67. ascertain (verb) – find out, discover, dig out.
  68. compliance (noun) – conformity, observance, observation, accordance, adherence.
  69. remedy (noun) – solution, answer, antidote/panacea.
  70. compensation (noun) – payment, repayment, settlement (for loss/damage). 
  71. non-recurrence (noun) – non-occurrence.
  72. inception (noun) – setting up, origination, establishment, institution, foundation/formation.
  73. outstanding (noun) – pending.
  74. stand at (verb) – be at a particular level.
  75. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  76. actor (noun) – participants (in an action).
  77. ratify (verb) – confirm, approve, sanction, endorse, agree to, accede, accept.
  78. The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (ICPPED) (noun) – an international human rights instrument of the United Nations and intended to prevent enforced disappearance defined in international law, crimes against humanity. It was adopted in 2006, and became effective in 2010.
  79. convention (noun) – treaty, agreement, accord, protocol, pact.
  80. eradicate (verb) – remove, get rid of, eliminate, discard, abolish.
  81. obligation (noun) – duty, responsibility, commitment.
  82. comprehensive (adjective) – all-inclusive, broad-based; complete, thorough, detailed.
  83. UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) (noun) – The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them. The Council is created on 15 March 2006 and it is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly. The Human Rights Council replaced the former United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
  84. dimension (noun) – aspect, feature, side, element.
  85. inflict on (verb) – cause, impose, administer, deal out, mete out. 
  86. readily (adverb) – easily, without difficulty, effortlessly, voluntarily.
  87. contemporary (adjective) – modern, present-day.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The crime of enforced disappearances must end) – May 14, 2021

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