The Hindu Lead Article (Target judicial patriarchy, not the judge) – Mar 10, 2021
A survey by the Thomson Reuters Foundation in 2018 had rated India as the most dangerous country for women. According to a National Crime Records Bureau report (2019) as many as 32,032 rapes were reported in 2019… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Target judicial patriarchy, not the judge) – Mar 10, 2021.
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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Target judicial patriarchy, not the judge) – Mar 10, 2021:
- patriarchy (noun) – a family/group/society/community/government controlled by a man/a group of men, descent described through male line of the family.
- lead to (verb) – result in, cause, bring on, call forth, give rise to.
- gender sensitivity (noun) – the process by which people are made aware of how gender plays a role in life through their treatment of others. It opens up communications between the sexes to bring mutual understanding and respect of each others’ roles.
- National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) (noun) – an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL). NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.
- decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
- insensitivity (noun) – lack of awareness, lack of concern, not caring about others’ feelings.
- bail (noun) – conditional, temporary release of an arrested/imprisoned person when a specified amount of security is deposited or pledged (as cash or property) to ensure his/her appearance in court when required.
- judiciary (noun) – judges.
- the judiciary (noun) – a branch of government in which judicial power is vested.
- in accordance with (phrase) –in agreement with, in conformity with, in line with, in compliance with.
- Section 165 of Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (noun) – Section 165 has vested extensive power on the judges for the interest of the administration of justice. A judge can, therefore, put any question to the witness or to the party at any time which it thinks fit for knowing the truth of a case and making it more clear. By this section, a judge is empowered to ask any question in any form and at any time to any witness or to parties about any fact either relevant or irrelevant and to order the production of any document or thing.
- Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (noun) – The Indian Evidence Act, originally passed in India by the Imperial Legislative Council in 1872, during the British Raj, contains a set of rules and allied issues governing the admissibility of evidence in the Indian courts of law.
- sensitivity (noun) – delicacy, subtlety, finer feelings.
- worrisome (adjective) – worrying, distressing/upsetting, troublesome.
- compoundable offence (noun) – compoundable offences are those offences where, the complainant (one who has filed the case, i.e. the victim), enter into a compromise, and agrees to have the charges dropped against the accused.
- seek (verb) – ask for, request, demand; appeal for.
- apology (noun) – expression of regret.
- apologise (verb) – say sorry, express regret, make an apology, ask forgiveness, beg pardon.
- unconditionally (adverb) – without conditions.
- pro- (prefix) – supporting, favouring.
- utterance (noun) – remark, comment, expression, statement.
- reflect (verb) – indicate, show, reveal, exhibit.
- patriarchal (adjective) – relating to cultures or societies that are controlled by men.
- disservice (noun) – injustice, disfavour, harm/damage.
- brutal (adjective) – severe, harsh, wicked, cruel, vicious, barbaric.
- subsequently (adverb) – afterwards, later on, in due course.
- allegedly (adverb) – reportedly, supposedly, purportedly, ostensibly, apparently.
- affidavit (noun) – sworn statement, self-attestation, self-declaration
- marital (adjective) – matrimonial; relating to marriage/wedding..
- constitute (verb) – establish, found, create, set up, form, organize.
- infringement (noun) – violation, transgression, breach.
- chastity (noun) – virginity, maidenhood, celibacy; self-restraint/self-denial.
- violation (noun) – breach, breaking, non-observance.
- bodily integrity (noun) – physical inviolability.
- sexual autonomy (noun) – it means someone’s prerogative (right) to determine when, with whom, and under what circumstances they engage in sexual activity.
- irrespective of (adjective) – notwithstanding, without regard for, regardless of.
- attitude (noun) – viewpoint, perspective, standpoint, position, approach.
- convict (noun) – prisoner, inmate, criminal.
- molest (verb) – assault/abuse sexually.
- sentence (noun) – verdict, punishment; prison term, life sentence, jail term.
- imprisonment (noun) – incarceration, custody, confinement.
- undergo (verb) – be subjected to.
- complainant (noun) – litigator, appellant, claimant, plaintiff.
- perpetration (noun) – committing, performing, inflicting/doing (a crime/offence).
- fall asleep (phrase) – doze off, go to sleep.
- unbecoming (adjective) – inappropriate, unfitting, unsuitable (behaviour).
- ravish (verb) – rape, sexually abuse, sexually assault, molest.
- hue ad cry (noun) – commotion, outcry, clamour, uproar, storm.
- expunge (verb) – erase, remove, delete.
- strange (adjective) – unusual, weird, abnormal, atypical.
- cut (verb) – reduce, decrease, lessen; delete, remove, take out.
- frustrated (adjective) – discontented, unsatisfied, disappointed, disaffected, disquieted.
- mediate (verb) – resolve, settle, arbitrate in, reconcile, patch up.
- acquittal (noun) – declaration of innocence, clearing, discharge, release, vindication, exoneration.
- absurd (adjective) – ridiculous, farcical, laughable.
- racial/ethnic purity (noun) – systematic attempt to eliminate other races from the population by sterilisation (sterilisation means the surgical procedure which permanently prevents a person’s capability of reproduction).
- bizarre (adjective) – strange, unusual, unconventional/eccentric, ridiculous.
- dispose of (phrase) – throw away, throw out, get rid of, do away with, discard, jettison, abandon.
- at times (phrase) – sometimes, occasionally, now and then.
- vermilion (noun) – sindoor, kumkum, tilak; (vermilion means bright red colour).
- conch (noun) – a common name of a number of different medium- to large-sized sea snail or shells.
- alimony (noun) – alimony means an allowance or amount which a court orders the husband to pay to the wife for her sustenance during separation or following divorce; financial support, spousal support, maintenance.
- progressive (noun) – relating to a person who supports social reform; liberal, forward-looking, forward-thinking, dynamic.
- mistress (noun) – kept woman; keep.
- hold (verb) – (of a judge or court) rule; decide.
- amount to (verb) – add up to, be equal to, be equivalent to, represent.
- Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (noun) – an Act to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus.
- in favour of (phrase) – in support of, to the advantage of, approve of.
- reverse (verb) – override, overrule, revoke, repeal, cancel.
- subscribe to (verb) – agree with, be in agreement with, support/endorse.
- circumstances (noun) – situation, conditions, state of affairs.
- coparcener (noun) – successor, heir, heiress, inheritor, descendant, beneficiary.
- succession (noun) – succession is the process by which all the earthly property of a person (dead/alive)
are dealt with. Succession results into inheritance. Inheritance is the transfer of rights of property from the person (dead/alive) to a successor.
- Hindu succession act (noun) – The Supreme Court of India reiterated (said again) that the Hindu Succession Act – which was amended in 2005 gives women equal inheritance rights. The apex court has now categorically (clearly) ruled that a woman can claim an equal share in the family property as a daughter in the same way “as that of a son,”. This right flows (comes) from her birth and not by any other factor such as the existence of her father.
- ethos (noun) – morality, attitudes, beliefs, principles; spirit, character.
- Muslim Personal Law (noun) – The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act was passed in 1937 with the aim to formulate an Islamic law code for Indian Muslims. An Act to make provision for the application of the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) to Muslims.
- absolute (adjective) – total, complete, full.
- automatic (adjective) – unthinking, instinctive, habitual, inattentive.
- trauma (noun) – torment, distress, suffering.
- offence (noun) – crime, illegal/unlawful act, wrongdoing.
- Section 498A in The Indian Penal Code (noun) – This section is about Cruelty to Women; Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) deals with the violence committed by her husband or in-laws or any spouse relative on women after her marriage.
- non-bailable (adjective) – not capable of being released on bail.
- non-compoundable offence (noun) – the more serious offences in which the parties cannot compromise.
- cognisable (offence/crime) (noun) – an offence for which, a police officer without any warrant has authority to arrest and to start an investigation with or without the permission of a court.
- cognizable (adjective) – within the jurisdiction of a court.
- warrant (noun) – it is generally an order that serves as a specific type of authorization, that is, a writ issued by a competent officer, usually a judge or magistrate, authorizes a law enforcement officer (police officer) to arrest and bring a person before the judge.
- hesitate (verb) – be reluctant, be unwilling, be disinclined to do something; delay/pause in doing something.
- Family Welfare Committee (noun) – Every district has a family welfare committee which looks into the matter of cases related to section 498A which submit its report to IO and if settlement reaches then the case is disposed of by the district or session judge or any magistrate empowered to do so which has jurisdiction upon it. By creating the Family Welfare Committee, the Supreme Court has created one more layer between the victim and the justice system, and as a result, her access to justice is compromised.
- insist upon (verb) – demand forcefully, ask for, press/push for.
- infamous (adjective) – notorious, disreputable, ill-famed.
- uphold (verb) – confirm, endorse/approve, vindicate/validate.
- overrule (verb) – reject, override, cancel.
- National Investigation Agency (NIA) (noun) – The National Investigation Agency is a central agency established by the Indian Government to combat terror in India. It is functioning as the Central Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency in the country. The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is created following the terror attack in Mumbai on December 26, 2008. It came into being on December 31, 2008, with the passage of the NIA Act of 2008.
- erroneous (adjective) – wrong, incorrect, inaccurate.
- rather than (phrase) – instead of.
1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context.
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Target judicial patriarchy, not the judge) – Mar 10, 2021: