The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021

Thirty-six years after it first began, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), appears to be all but dead in the water. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021:

  1. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) (noun) – Established in 1985, it is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of states in South Asia. Its member states are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
  2. ash (noun) – remains.
  3. despondency (noun) – dejection, discouragement, hopelessness/despair.
  4. rationale (noun) – reason, reasoning, grounds, basis, logic.
  5. intact (adjective) – unbroken, undamaged, unharmed, uninjured, unimpaired.
  6. all but (phrase) – nearly, almost, just about, more or less, practically, virtually.
  7. dead in the water (phrase) – not able to function successfully.
  8. mark (verb) – indicate, represent, signify.
  9. make up (phrasal verb) – comprise, form, compose, constitute.
  10. perilous (adjective) – dangerous, risky, precarious, insecure, life-threatening.
  11. SAARC charter day (noun) – The Charter establishing the Association (SAARC) was signed on 8 December 1985 by the leader of the Seven South Asian Countries (Maldives, India, Bhutan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladeshi and Sri Lanka). The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) celebrates its Charter Day annually on the 8th of December. The 36th SAARC Charter Day was observed on the 8th December 2020 at the SAARC Cultural Centre (SCC), Colombo, Sri Lanka premises in an elegant manner.
  12. make clear (phrase) – explain, clarify, elucidate.
  13. cross-border (adjective) – across a border between two countries.
  14. summit (noun) – meeting, conference.
  15. in place (phrase) – in position.
  16. convene (verb) – summon, call/get together, assemble, gather.
  17. unlikely (adjective) – doubtful, dubious, implausible, beyond belief.
  18. shadow (noun) – something that is not good/insubstantial.
  19. fragmented (adjective) – divided, split, separated, disintegrated.
  20. rather than (phrase) – instead of.
  21. collective (adjective) – combined, united/joint, cooperative (by all people as a group).
  22. silo (noun) – any system/process/department which is unable to operate with others. It functions alone and does not wish to share information with others.
  23. configuration (noun) – arrangement, composition, disposition (of different parts/elements).
  24. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  25. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  26. aggression (noun) – hostility, belligerence, combativeness, warmongering, hawkishness.
  27. Line of Actual Control (LAC) (noun) – the de-facto (effective) border between India and China. The LAC is a 4,057-km border running through three areas-Western (Ladakh, Ladakh (Kashmir)), middle (Uttarakhand, Himachal) and eastern (Sikkim, Arunachal).
  28. the spotlight (noun) – the public attention, the focus of public/media; the public eye.
  29. mechanism (noun) – procedure, process, method/technique.
  30. reverse (verb) – alter, change.
  31. host (verb) – present, organize, arrange (an event).
  32. akin (adjective) – similar, related, equivalent.
  33. veto (noun) – a right/power to reject a decision/proposal; rejection, dismissal, denial, ban, prohibition.
  34. insistence (noun) – demand, requirement; assertion, declaration, claim.
  35. puzzling (adjective) – bewildering, perplexing, mystifying, bemusing, confusing, unclear, difficult to understand.
  36. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) (noun) – The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai (China). The SCO currently comprises eight Member States (China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) and is seen as a counterweight to NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organization). It was established as a multilateral association to ensure security and maintain stability across the vast Eurasian region, join forces to counteract emerging challenges and threats, and enhance trade, as well as cultural and humanitarian cooperation.
  37. counterpart (noun) – equivalent, equal (person); fellow, peer.
  38. incursion (noun) – invasion/attack; it is the act of entering another’s territory; And it is the sudden arrival of someone into an area where they do not belong.
  39. constitute (verb) – represent, comprise, be regarded as, act as.
  40. Russia, India and China grouping (RIC) (noun) – a grouping acronym referring to the countries of Russia, India, and China and what makes the trilateral (grouping) unique-and important-is the convergence of geography, foreign policy philosophy, and economic ascent within the group.
  41. trilateral (adjective) – involving three nations/parties/groups.
  42. The Group of Twenty (G20) (noun) – The Group of Twenty (G20) is the premier international forum for global economic cooperation. The members of the G20 are: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and the European Union. G20 members account for 85 per cent of the world economy, 75 per cent of global trade, and two-thirds of the world’s population, including more than half of the world’s poor.
  43. territorial (adjective) – geographical.
  44. multilateral (adjective) – involving many different countries (in which all WTO member countries are party to the agreement).
  45. inexplicable (adjective) – perplexing, mystifying, bewildering, mysterious, strange; incomprehensible, unfathomable, unexplainable.
  46. virtual (adjective) – performing a task with the use of a computer, especially over a network.
  47. virtual summit (noun) – online meeting.
  48. move forward (phrasal verb) – progress, make progress, advance, develop.
  49. pandemic-caused (adjective) – produced by pandemic.
  50. revive (verb) – reintroduce, re-establish, restore; revitalize, fortify, strengthen.
  51. counter (verb) – tackle, stand up to, put up a fight against.
  52. bring about (phrasal verb) – cause, produce, give rise to.
  53. to begin with (phrase) – at first, at the outset, at the beginning.
  54. comprehensive (adjective) – all-inclusive, broad-based, complete/thorough.
  55. preparedness (noun) – readiness.
  56. trial (noun) – test, pilot study, experiment (phase 1, 2,3, and or human/clinical trial).
  57. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  58. cold chain (noun) – a temperature-controlled supply chain. It is a kind of supply chain that specializes in the storage, transport, and preservation of cargo that needs to be maintained at a specific temperature or within an acceptable temperature range.
  59. call for (phrasal verb) – require, publicly ask/necessitate, demand.
  60. Gross domestic product (GDP) (noun) – a measure of economic activity in a country. It is the total value of a country’s annual output of goods and service.
  61. slowdown (noun) – economic decline, recession, slump/depression.
  62. cut (verb) – reduce, decrease, lessen.
  63. lead to (verb) – result in, cause, bring on, call forth, give rise to.
  64. migrant (noun) – a person who moves from one region to another – either within a country or across national borders in order to find work or better living conditions.
  65. expatriate (noun) – newcomer, incomer, new arrival, migrant/emigrant.
  66. intra- (prefix) – within.
  67. transnational (adjective) – involving/relating to two/more countries.
  68. cite (verb) – refer to, adduce, make reference to, invoke.
  69. ‘East Africa Single Joint Visa’ system (noun) – a single entry visa for foreigners visiting Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda simultaneously. It is multi-entry within the three countries; however, this expires automatically if a traveler goes outside of the three (3) countries.
  70. food security (noun) – food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical,  social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
  71. growing (adjective) – increasing.
  72. distaste (noun) – dislike disdain, hatred.
  73. globalisation (noun) – the process of making the trade of goods and services equivalent in all nations (Courtesy: VOA Learning English).
  74. migration (noun) – movement of people within the borders of the same country or cross international borders in order to find work or better living conditions.
  75. nativism (noun) – the political policy of supporting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.
  76. self-dependence (noun) – independence, self-reliance.
  77. (global) supply chain (noun) – a dynamic worldwide network when a company purchases or uses goods or services from overseas. It involves people, information, processes and resources involved in the production, handling and distribution of materials and finished products or providing a service to the customer.
  78. localised (adjective) – limited/restricted to a particular place.
  79. cut off (phrasal verb) – block/stop, remove, discontinue (a standard method of doing/accessing something).
  80. goldilocks (noun) – exactly right condition (a country’s economy is neither expanding too fast nor contracting). (not too hot and not too cold).
  81. hyper-nationalism (noun) – extreme nationalism, ultra-nationalism.
  82. United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) (noun) – it is a free trade agreement concluded between Canada, Mexico, and the United States as a successor to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
  83. the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) (noun) – Spanish acronym of Mercado Común del Sur, the Southern Common Market is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994. Its full members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
  84. African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) (noun) – it is an African free trade area, concluded under an agreement between African Union (AU) countries signed in March 2018, AU member States have continued to show interest in this continental project. To date, the Agreement has been signed by 54 out of 55 member States.
  85. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) (noun) – a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq, namely: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
  86. Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) (noun) – a proposed agreement between the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its free trade agreement (FTA) partners. The pact aims to cover trade in goods and services, intellectual property, etc.
  87. South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) (noun) – the free trade arrangement of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
  88. quest (noun) – pursuit, search.
  89. neighbourhood (noun) – (surrounding) area, region, district/country.
  90. potent (noun) – strong, powerful, effective.
  91. countermeasure (noun) – solution, answer, antidote.
  92. amplify (verb) – raise, intensify, escalate.
  93. perception (noun) – understanding/interpretation, realization, discernment.
  94. Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) (noun) – The Belt and Road Initiative, formerly known as One Belt One Road or OBOR for short, is a global infrastructure development strategy adopted by the Chinese government in 2013 to invest in nearly 71 countries and international organizations. It is also referred to as “21st century silk road”. From South-east Asia to Eastern Europe and Africa, Belt and Road includes 71 countries that account for half the world’s population and a quarter of global GDP.
  95. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  96. rebuff (noun) – rejection, refusal, snub (of a request).
  97. Communist Party of China (CPC) (noun) – also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP); it is the founding and ruling political party of modern China, officially known as the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
  98. arm (verb) – prepare, make ready.
  99. United Front Work Department (UFWD) (noun) – The United Front Work Department of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party is a department that reports directly to the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, which gathers intelligence on, manages relations with, and attempts to influence elite individuals and organizations inside and outside China.
  100. push ahead (phrase) – proceed, advance, progress, move up.
  101. personal protective equipment (PPE) (noun) – safety gear; protective clothing, helmets, masks, goggles, gloves or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury/disease.
  102. Health Silk Road (noun) – The Health Silk Road, a rhetorical extension of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). China had wafted (floated) its Health Silk Road in the World Health Organization (WHO) before the pandemic. The Health Silk Road which has been part of China’s BRI since its conception in 2013 originated in 2017 by China and the WHO.
  103. sinovac vaccine (noun) – a (covid-19) vaccine developed by Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (a Chinese biopharmaceutical company).
  104. it is only a matter of time (phrase) – to be sure to happen at some point in the future.
  105. bilateral (adjective) – involving two groups or countries.
  106. step up (phrasal verb) – increase, intensify, strengthen, augment.
  107. diplomacy (noun) – negotiation, discussion, talks.
  108. revival (noun) – improvement, rallying, picking up; comeback.
  109. grievance (noun) – complaint, problem, objection/protest.
  110. perceive (verb) – view, regard, consider.
  111. geography (noun) – region.
  112. see through (phrasal verb) – realize, understand, get the measure of.
  113. prism (noun) – a viewpoint which clarifies/distorts something.
  114. People’s Liberation Army (PLA) (noun) – People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the country of China and Communist Party of China (CPC). It is one of the largest military forces in the world.
  115. strategy (noun) – plan of action (in order to achieve a more expansive set of political, economic, and security interests).
  116. in conjunction (phrase) – together.
  117. front (noun) – a particular situation (or) front line, vanguard, combat zone.
  118. force-multiplier (noun) – tools/mechanisms/procedures that help you amplify/increase your effort to produce more output.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Reclaiming SAARC from the ashes of 2020) – Jan 13, 2021

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