The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021

Governments, like the citizens that live under their influence, come in a dizzying array of types, challenging simplistic efforts of classification. In spite of all this variation,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021:

  1. pull back (phrasal verb) – withdraw, retreat, disengage.
  2. brink (noun) – edge/verge/end (of something).
  3. credentials (noun) – identities, qualities; achievement, experience, knowledge.
  4. tarnished (adjective) – spoiled, ruined, damaged.
  5. merit (verb) – deserve, warrant, justify.
  6. influence (noun) – control, sway/power, authority.
  7. come in (phrasal verb) – enter, arrive, be involved, to take part in something.
  8. dizzying (adjective) – confused, muddled, bewildered; off-balance, shaky, unsteady.
  9. array (noun) – list, line-up.
  10. simplistic (adjective) – oversimple/oversimplified, schematic, facile.
  11. classification (noun) – categorization, grouping, systematization.
  12. in spite of (phrase) – despite, notwithstanding, regardless of.
  13. constant (adjective) – continuous, persistent, round-the-clock.
  14. throughout (adverb) – all through, from beginning to end.
  15. wield (verb) – exercise, exert, be possessed of, have.
  16. considerably (adverb) – greatly, very much, a lot.
  17. the governed (noun) – citizens in a particular government as a whole.
  18. the other way around (phrase) – oppositely, in reverse, conversely, inversely.
  19. gross (adjective) – flagrant, blatant, glaring, obvious, overt, evident.
  20. understatement (noun) – trivialization, euphemism; restraint, underemphasis.
  21. unfettered (adjective) – unrestrained, unrestricted, unconstrained.
  22. subject (noun) – citizen, national, native, resident, inhabitant.
  23. enlightened (adjective) – informed, educated, knowledgeable.
  24. benign (adjective) – good-natured, kind/gentle, friendly.
  25. grasp (verb) – understand, comprehend, follow, apprehend.
  26. insight (noun) – perception, understanding, awareness, vision.
  27. legitimate (adjective) – valid, reasonable, reliable.
  28. coercion (noun) – it means compelling an individual to act against his/her will by the use of psychological pressure or physical force causing bodily injury; force/pressure, oppression, harassment, intimidation.
  29. arbitrary (adjective) – whimsical, irrational, casual; autocratic, draconian, anti-democratic.
  30. arbitrary power (noun) – tyranny, dictatorship, totalitarianism, fascism, autocracy.
  31. exception (noun) – an anomaly, special case, deviation.
  32. iron fist (noun) – oppression, control, heavy-hand.
  33. checks and balances (plural noun) – a system in which all departments of a government organization have the right to amend/limit the powers of the other departments in order to avoid the dominance of one department.
  34. description (noun) – interpretation, narration, portrayal.
  35. state-society relations (noun) – interactions between state institutions and societal groups to negotiate how public authority is exercised and how it can be influenced by people.
  36. sound (verb) – pronounce, voice, announce, articulate, say, indicate.
  37. quite (adjective) – fairly, reasonably.
  38. anachronistic (adjective) – old-fashioned, bygone, outmoded.
  39. balance of power (phrase) – stability in a system composed of a number of autonomous forces. Whenever the equilibrium is disturbed either by an outside force or by a change in one or the other elements composing the system, the system shows a tendency to re-establish either the original or a new equilibrium.
  40. contemporary (adjective) – modern, present-day.
  41. sovereign (adjective) – independent, self-governing, autonomous.
  42. arguably (adverb) – possibly, conceivably, maybe, potentially.
  43. establishment (noun) – institution, formation, creation.
  44. Glorious Revolution (noun) – The Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 replaced the reigning king, James II, with the joint monarchy of his protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange. It was the keystone of the Whig (those opposed to a Catholic succession) history of Britain.
  45. emboldened (adjective) – encouraged, motivated; strengthened, fortified.
  46. nobility (noun) – virtue, goodness, honesty, decency, integrity.
  47. assert (verb) – declare, announce, pronounce, state.
  48. monarch (noun) – sovereign, ruler, crowned head.
  49. purse (noun) – a sum of (prize) money/amount.
  50. The Lords (noun) – (in the UK) members of the House of Lords (the upper house chamber of UK Parliament; The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom).
  51. isle noun) – an island.
  52. precious little (phrase) – very little.
  53. spawn (verb) – produce, generate, promote/trigger.
  54. inalienable (adjective) – inviolable/unchallengeable, absolute/inherent.
  55. colonialism (noun) – the act of controlling & exploiting a country/territory (& its people) by another country/territory.
  56. exclusion (noun) – banning; rejection, ostracism, banishment.
  57. as well as (phrase) – and also, and in addition.
  58. millennia (noun) – plural form of millennium (a period of a thousand years).
  59. periodically (adverb) – at regular intervals.
  60. universal suffrage/franchise (noun) – the right of citizens in a given society who are entitled to vote in an election without the discrimination of caste, class, colour, religion or sex.
  61. judiciary (noun) – judges
  62. the judiciary (noun) – a branch of government in which judicial power is vested.
  63. scrutinise (verb) – examine carefully, inspect; investigate.
  64. make public (phrase) – announce, communicate, make known, disseminate.
  65. empowered (adjective) – authorized, allowed, entitled.
  66. on behalf of (phrase) – in the interests of, in support of, for the benefit of.
  67. heady (adjective) – thrilled, elated, excited, euphoric, ecstatic, overwhelmed, overjoyed.
  68. self-determination (noun) – autonomy, independence, freedom.
  69. herald (verb) – publicize, declare, make public, announce, usher in.
  70. proliferation (noun) – rapid increase, rise, escalation.
  71. ideological (adjective) – relating to a system of ideas.
  72. the Cold War (noun) – The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States and a group of countries) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and a group of countries).
  73. sine qua non (noun) – a necessity, essential item, basics.
  74. fig leaf (noun) – (figuratively) something that is used to hide an embarrassing situation or problem; disguise, camouflage, cover-up, shield, facade, veneer.
  75. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  76. unipolar (adjective) – (in international politics), relating to a distribution of power in which one state (country/person) exercises most of the cultural, economic, and military influence.
  77. erstwhile (adjective) – old, previous, former, then.
  78. dictatorship (noun) – totalitarianism, absolute rule, autocracy.
  79. commentator (noun) – critic, analyst, observer.
  80. infamously (adverb) – ill-famedly, notoriously, disreputably.
  81. win the day (phrase) – be victorious.
  82. triumphalist (adjective) – an attitude or a belief that a particular doctrine, religion, culture, social system is superior to and should triumph all over others.
  83. anticipate (verb) – expect, foresee, predict.
  84. fealty (noun) – allegiance, faithfulness, fidelity, obedience, adherence.
  85. vibrancy (noun) – energy, buoyancy, briskness, vitiality.
  86. squirm (verb) – turn, twist, flounder.
  87. a level playing field (phrase) – a situation in which everyone has a fair and equal opportunity to succeed, and no one has an advantage over the other.
  88. render (verb) – make, cause to be, cause to become.
  89. incumbent (noun) – the holder/occupant of an office.
  90. autocrat (noun) – authoritarian, totalitarian; dictator, despot.
  91. sustained (adjective) – continuous, constant, steady.
  92. assault (noun) – attack, offensive, onslaught.
  93. brazenly (adverb) – blatantly, clearly, fragrantly.
  94. majoritarian (noun) – a philosophy that states that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language, social class, or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy (priority) in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society.
  95. impulse (noun) – (strong & sudden) urge/instinct, compulsion, need.
  96. constitutionalism (noun) – limited/restrained/controlled government.
  97. playbook (noun) – strategies.
  98. hone (verb) – refine, perfect, sharpen, give strength to.
  99. incompetently (adverb) – unskilfully, inexpertly, amateurishly,
  100. indices plural of index (noun) – indicator, guide.
  101. kerfuffle (noun) – commotion, disturbance, argument/uproar.
  102. Freedom House (noun) – Freedom House is a U.S.-based, U.S. government-funded non-profit non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights. Freedom House (based in Washington DC) was founded in October 1941. Freedom House is founded on the core conviction that freedom flourishes in democratic nations where governments are accountable to their people; the rule of law prevails; and freedoms of expression, association, and belief, as well as respect for the rights of women, minority communities, and historically marginalized groups, are guaranteed.
  103. Varieties of Democracy project (V-DEM) (noun) – an independent research institute founded in 2014 and is funded by a number of government organizations, World Bank and several research institutions. The headquarters of the project is based at the department of political science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. We provide a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond the simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between five high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, and egalitarian, and collects data to measure these principles.
  104. well-regarded (adjective) – well-respected, well-esteemed, well-acclaimed.
  105. conceptualise (verb) – envisage, envision, contemplate, think about.
  106. destined to (adjective) – sure to meet (a particular end).
  107. downgrade (verb) – lower in status/rank/importance, demote.
  108. set off (phrasal verb) – give rise to, cause, trigger, prompt, bring about.
  109. firestorm (noun) – blaze, conflagration, inferno.
  110. indignant (adjective) – angry, distressed, unhappy, aggrieved.
  111. frontal (adjective) – relating to the forehead.
  112. dismiss (verb) – reject, deny, repudiate, spurn.
  113. self-appointed (adjective) – so-called, self-titled, self-styled, inappropriately named.
  114. arbiter (noun) – someone who has ultimate authority/power; judge, authority, controller.
  115. cynic (noun) – sceptic, doubter.
  116. point out (phrasal verb) – identify, mention, indicate, draw attention to.
  117. trumpet (verb) – announce, declare, proclaim loudly.
  118. laud (verb) – praise, hail, applaud, acclaim.
  119. for instance (phrase) – as an example.
  120. explicitly (adverb) – clearly, unequivocally, understandably, without question/doubt.
  121. multi-dimensional (adjective) – involving several dimensions (aspects/features).
  122. schema (noun) – plan, outline, structure, scheme.
  123. sophisticated (adjective) – highly developed.
  124. peer-reviewed (adjective) – relating to a process by which something research or publication is evaluated by a group of experts in the appropriate field.
  125. correlation (noun) – similarity, parallel, resemblance.
  126. facet (noun) – aspect, feature, characteristic/nuance.
  127. conception (noun) – idea, concept, notion.
  128. holistic (adjective) – relating to an integrated approach that takes care of the “whole thing”, instead of certain parts in it.
  129. considerable (adjective) – substantial, appreciable, significant, much.
  130. weight (noun) – value; importance/significance.
  131. the undermining (noun) – lessening, reduction, decreasing.
  132. battered (adjective) – damaged, impaired, spoiled.
  133. backslide (verb) – weaken, relapse, deteriorate.
  134. retreat (noun) – withdrawal, pulling back, recoiling.
  135. disingenuous (adjective) – dishonest, deceitful, double-dealing.
  136. pretend (verb) – act like, make believe, behave (like something is true even it is not); to give false appearance, fake.
  137. perception (noun) – understanding, thought, impression, feeling.
  138. consequence (noun) – outcome, ramification, repercussion.
  139. Quad/Quadrilateral (noun) – The ‘Quadrilateral’ is described as four democracies (the United States, Japan, Australia and India) with a shared objective to ensure and support a “free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region.
  140. D-10 (noun) – a grouping of 10 democratic countries comprising the G7 plus Australia, India and South Korea.
  141. G-7 or Group of Seven (noun) – a multilateral forum made up of the world’s seven largest so-called developed countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. They meet annually to discuss and exchange ideas on a broad range of issues, including global economy, security and energy.
  142. moniker (noun) – nickname, label, title.
  143. crib (about) (verb) – (in Old British or Indian English) to complain about someone/something angrily & constantly (non-stop); crib (v) generally means to copy (someone else’s work dishonestly); crib (n) means a child’s cot/cradle.
  144. adverse (adjective) – unfavourable, disadvantageous, bad.
  145. besides (preposition/linking adverb) – in addition to, as well, apart from.
  146. shun (verb) – avoid, ignore, reject, eschew.
  147. gallery (noun) – audience, spectators, watchers, onlookers.
  148. peevish (adjective) – irritable, disagreeable, miserable.
  149. savvy (adjective in combination) – intelligent, clever, expert; experienced in a particular area (of knowledge).
  150. misinformation (noun) – disinformation, false information, alternative fact, fake news, false rumour.
  151. see through (phrasal verb) – fathom, realize, understand.
  152. pliant (noun) – easily influenced, influenceable, yielding.
  153. bot (noun) – a robot.
  154. intrinsic (adjective) – integral, inherent, deep-rooted, fundamental, essential.
  155. campaign (noun) – an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision-making progress within a specific group.
  156. legitimacy (noun) – legality, validity, lawfulness.
  157. quip (noun) – a funny/witty remark or comment; joke, banter.
  158. play to the gallery (phrase) – instead of doing his/her job, is keen on winning popularity.
  159. assuage (verb) – suppress, smother, stifle, quench, quell, check.
  160. critic (noun) – reviewer, appraiser, analyst, censurer, attacker, fault-finder.
  161. own up (phrase) – accept responsibility, acknowledge, acknowledge that, tell the truth.
  162. debacle (noun) – fiasco, failure, disaster.
  163. hard-won (adjective) – achieved/gained only after a lot of effort.
  164. husband (verb) – (of resources) use economocally, use sparingly.
  165. custodian (noun) – protector, defender, guardian.
  166. defensive (adjective) – self-justifying, oversensitive, thin-skinned, easily offended.
  167. viable (adjective) – reasonable, practical, logical, sensible, effective.
  168. devise (verb) – formulate, come up with, create.
  169. exceptionalism (noun) – the state of being special, exceptional or unique. The belief that a country, society, or individual, is “exceptional” (i.e., extraordinary).
  170. beacon (noun) – guiding light; a source of inspiration.
  171. seek (verb) – try, attempt, aim.
  172. enviable (adjective) – desirable, attractive, desired, admirable.
  173. erosion (noun) – disintegration, deterioration, decline, undermining/weakening.
  174. autonomy (noun) – independence, freedom.
  175. undermine (verb) – reduce, diminish, impede, hinder.


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2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context.  
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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Pulling India’s democracy back from the brink) – Mar 18, 2021

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