The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021

For at least four decades now, economic policy making globally has dogmatically adhered to the notion that a progressively reduced role of the state would automatically deliver greater economic growth and welfare… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021:

  1. plough to plate (or) from farm to fork/table (phrase) – used to refer to food chain from (agricultural) produce to food (on the table).
  2. hand-hold (verb) – support/guide.
  3. distinct (adjective) – definite, well defined, clearly noticeable, easily distinguishable.
  4. characteristic (noun) – attribute, feature, quality, aspect.
  5. welfare (noun) – a government program that provides (financial) assistance to individuals and families in need; social security, public assistance.
  6. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  7. dogmatically (adverb) – assertively, imperatively, insistently, unquestionably.
  8. adhere to (verb) – abide by, follow, obey, comply with.
  9. notion (noun) – idea, belief, opinion, view.
  10. progressively (adverb) – steadily, gradually, in step by step manner.
  11. compulsively (adverb) – irresistibly, urgently.
  12. seek (verb) – try, aim, attempt.
  13. overwhelming (adjective) – very great/large, huge, enormous.
  14. play a part/role (phrase) – contribute to, be instrumental in, be a factor in.
  15. provision (verb) – provide, give, furnish.
  16. sanitation (noun) – it generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces (Courtesy: WHO).
  17. nutrition (noun) – the process in which necessary food is received/obtained by the living things to grow and be healthy.
  18. context (noun) – circumstances, conditions, situation.
  19. imply (verb) – say indirectly, suggest, indicate.
  20. specificity (noun) – the quality relating uniquely to a specific subject.
  21. due to (phrase) – because of, owing to, on account of, as a result of.
  22. uncertainty (noun) – unpredictability, unreliability, riskiness/precariousness.
  23. fertility (noun) – productiveness.
  24. underscore (verb) – underline, emphasize, highlight.
  25. make the cut (phrase) – equal or better the (standard) score to avoid elimination.
  26. phenomenon (noun) – fact, situation, circumstance, experience.
  27. self-exploitation (adjective) – self-victimization.
  28. peasant (noun) – agricultural worker, small farmer.
  29. cling on to (verb) – hold on to, grip, grasp, clasp, attach oneself to, hold tightly.
  30. climatic (adjective) – relating to climate.
  31. harvest (verb) – obtain, gain, get, gather (a crop).
  32. harvest (noun) – yield, crop.
  33. price-inelastic (adjective) – relating to supply/demand which is unconcerned to changes in price.
  34. bumper (adjective) – abundant, huge, large, copious, profitable.
  35. bumper crop (noun) – a crop that has yielded an unusually productive (abundant/huge) harvest.
  36. salvage (verb) – recover, regain, restore, reclaim, get back, retrieve.
  37. correspondingly (adverb) – comparably, equivalently, analogously, similarly.
  38. unregulated (adjective) – not restricted.
  39. drought (noun) – dry spell, dry period, lack of rain, shortage of water.
  40. starve (verb) – deprive of, strip of; feel hungry; deny, prevent.
  41. pauperised (adjective) – made poor, impoverished, poverty-stricken, penurious.
  42. hoard (verb) – store, stock up on, stockpile.
  43. balance of power (phrase) – stability in a system composed of a number of autonomous forces. Whenever the equilibrium is disturbed either by an outside force or by a change in one or the other elements composing the system, the system shows a tendency to re-establish either the original or a new equilibrium.
  44. double up (phrasal verb) – play a different role.
  45. exploitative (adjective) – unprincipled, unethical, immoral, dishonest, fraudulent.
  46. interlock (verb) – engage, interconnect, join.
  47. afflict (verb) – trouble, bother, burden, distress.
  48. credit market (noun) – debt market; bond market; a broad financial market where stocks, shares, bonds, debts and other securities are traded extensively.
  49. usurious (adjective) – greedy, rapacious, extortionate.
  50. debt trap (noun) – a situation that causes a damaging cycle of borrowing when someone cannot repay their debts on schedule.
  51. virtually (adverb) – practically, almost, nearly.
  52. lessor (noun) – proprietor, property owner.
  53. in tandem (phrase) – alongside each other.
  54. oppressive (adjective) – overwhelming, overpowering, unbearable, burdensome, intolerable, heavy.
  55. cumulative (adjective) – total, collective, aggregate, amassed.  
  56. cascading (adjective) – (of a large number of something) pouring, surging, flowing (in a series/sequence).
  57. spiral (noun) – rise or fall of something; upward spiral – growth, rise, enlargement, expansion (or) downward spiral- deterioration, decline, degradation.
  58. expropriation (noun) – dispossessing/stripping someone of property.
  59. intervention (noun) – the process of intervening in something; involvement, interference.
  60. diversify (verb) – vary, bring variety to, mix.
  61. procurement (noun) – the action of procuring/purchasing something.
  62. Food Corporation of India (FCI) (noun) – The Food Corporation of Indi (FCI) is an organization created and run by the Government of India. It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Government of India, formed by the enactment of Food Corporation Act 1964. It was set up on 14 January 1965 to implement the following objectives of the National Food Policy. Effective price support operations for safeguarding the interests of the farmers, Distribution of foodgrains throughout the country for public distribution system & Maintaining a satisfactory level of operational and buffer stocks of foodgrains to ensure National Food Security.
  63. The Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) (noun) – The Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP since 1985, earlier named as Agricultural Prices Commission) came into existence in January 1965. ACP submits its recommendations to the government in the form of Price Policy Reports every year, separately for five groups of commodities namely Kharif crops, Rabi crops, Sugarcane, Raw Jute and Copra.
  64. set up (phrasal verb) – establish, create, institute.
  65. green revolution (noun) – it was the result of a sequence of scientific breakthroughs and development activities (1960s-1970s) that successfully increased food production. It marked a transition from traditional agriculture in India and the introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the associated agricultural techniques. It mainly increased the food crops production in the state of Punjab, Haryana and   parts of western Uttar Pradesh.
  66. surplus (noun) – excess, oversupply, overabundance.
  67. subsidise (verb/noun) – support, finance, contribute to, provide finance for. (it generally means “pay part of the cost of something, so that it is available at a lower price”).
  68. Public Distribution System (PDS) (noun) – The Public Distribution System (PDS) in the country facilitates the supply of food grains and distribution of essential commodities to a large number of poor people through a network of Fair Price Shops at a subsidized price on a recurring basis.
  69. dip (verb) – decrease, fall/drop, slump.
  70. buffer stock (noun) – a large supply of a commodity stored (as reserve/extra) by the government for the purposes of stabilizing prices in an entire economy.
  71. vaunted (adjective) – acclaimed, highly rated, admired.
  72. food security (noun) – food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical,  social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
  73. sow the seeds of (phrase) – trigger, initiate, activate.
  74. of one’s own (phrase) – belonging to oneself only/alone.
  75. unprecedented (adjective) – not done or experienced before.
  76. growing (adjective) – increasing.
  77. yield (noun) – profit, gain, return, dividend, proceeds.
  78. cultivation (noun) – the act of growing something, especially crops.
  79. -intensive (adjective/usually in combination) – (in business) concentrating on a particular thing.
  80. primarily (adverb) – basically, especially, particularly.
  81. proportion (noun) – size/magnitude.
  82. basket (noun) – a group of something (investments, commodities, etc.).
  83. win-win (adjective) – relating to a situation in which each party will gain something.
  84. sustainable (adjective) – reasonable, sensible, well-founded (without disturbing the balance of nature and then without exhausting all of the natural resources).
  85. water security (noun) – the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability.
  86. agro-ecology (noun) – the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems.
  87. pulses (noun) – pulses are the term used for edible dry peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas & etc.
  88. incentivise (verb) – encourage, motivate, galvanize.
  89. benchmark (noun as modifier) – standard, base/basis, point of reference.
  90. Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA) scheme (noun) – an umbrella scheme aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce. It ensures Minimum Support Price (MSP) to farmers.
  91. Anganwadi (noun) – a type of rural child care centre in India.
  92. supplementary (adjective) – additional, extra, increased.
  93. syndemic (noun) – A syndemic is a situation when two or more epidemics interact synergistically to produce an increased burden of disease in a population.
  94. malnutrition (noun) – undernourishment, undernutrition, poor/unhealthy/inadequate diet.
  95. Glycemic index (GI) (noun) – Glycemic index is a number that gives you an idea about how fast your body converts the carbs in a food into glucose.
  96. antioxidant (noun) – A substance that protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals (unstable molecules made by the process of oxidation during normal metabolism). Well-known antioxidants include enzymes and other substances, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, which are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation.
  97. infrastructure (noun) – the basic physical or organisational structure or framework.
  98. produce (noun) – all agricultural products.
  99. safeguard (verb) – protect, shield, defend, guard.
  100. exploitation (noun) – taking advantage, utilization, misuse, unfair treatment, capitalization.
  101. focal point (noun) – main feature, central point.
  102. Second Five Year Plan, 1956 (noun) – The Second Plan focused on the development of the public sector and “rapid Industrialisation”.
  103. plank (noun) – a fundamental point.
  104. get off (phrasal verb) – leave, exit, disembark.
  105. given (preposition) – considering, taking into account, bearing in mind.
  106. demographic (adjective) – the statistical study/structure of populations, especially human beings.
  107. transition (noun) – change.
  108. bear/keep in mind (phrase) – take into account, consider.
  109. nightmare (noun) – very unpleasant or frightening experience; ordeal, horror, torment.
  110. metropolis (noun) – a big city/a large & busy city.
  111. migrant (noun) – a person who moves from one region to another – either within a country or across national borders in order to find work or better living conditions.
  112. characterise (verb) – identify, depict, describe.
  113. grave (adjective) – crucial/critical, important/significant, serious.
  114. inequality (noun) – Inequality is simply defined as “the state of not being equal, especially in status, rights and opportunities; imbalance, unevenness, disproportion, disparity.
  115. skewed (adjective) – asymmetrical, unevenly balanced, unequal.
  116. radically (adverb) – completely, thoroughly, fundamentally, totally, entirely.
  117. qualitatively (adverb) – in relation to the qualities of something.
  118. regulatory (adjective) – organizational, governmental.
  119. oversight (noun) – supervision, surveillance, superintendence, inspection, administration.
  120. rather than (phrase) – instead of.
  121. open up (phrasal verb) – become accessible; become available.
  122. predatory (adjective) – exploitative, greedy, rapacious, avaricious.
  123. entrenched (adjective) – ingrained, established, embedded.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Plough to plate, hand held by the Indian state) – Apr 09, 2021

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