The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020

The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020

Over the course of the last few weeks, as we have found ourselves in the throes of a pandemic, one of the striking features of governance… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020:

  1. decentralisation (noun) – the process of distributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.
  2. take up (phrasal verb) – engage in, participate in, start, undertake.
  3. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  4. over the course of (phrase) – when something is happening; during the process of.
  5. in the throes of (phrase) – struggling with, grappling with, in the middle of.
  6. striking (adjective) – noticeable, obvious/evident, distinctive, notable. 
  7. signal (adjective) – notable, remarkable, outstanding, significant.
  8. invoke (verb) – cite, refer to, adduce. 
  9. epidemic (noun) – widespread disease/illness; outbreak, plague, scourge.
  10. install (verb) – establish, position, put in place.
  11. combat (verb) – fight, tackle, confront, defy/resist.
  12. oncoming (adjective) – approaching, coming, nearing.
  13. onslaught (noun) – attack, offensive, assault/aggression.
  14. COVID-19 (noun) – coronavirus disease 2019.
  15. disproportionately (adverb) – excessively, unduly, unnecessarily.
  16. trench upon (verb) – encroach on, infringe, intrude, invade.
  17. by and large (phrase) – generally, altogether, all things considered.
  18. tailor (verb) – customize, adapt, adjust, modify, change.
  19. on the ground (phrase) – in a situation/place where things are happening really/practically.
  20. address (verb) – tackle, deal with, attend to, try to sort out.
  21. consideration (noun) – concern, care, attentiveness.
  22. lay out (phrasal verb) – outline, draw up, formulate.
  23. framework (noun) – structure, scheme, system.
  24. merely (adverb) – only, simply, just.
  25. Laboratories of democracy (noun) – a phrase popularized by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis to describe how a “state may, if its citizens choose, serve as a laboratory. If the process is working right, the best overall policies will gradually become the law of the land. Over time, policies will also gradually become more centralized. This phrase is in connection with federalism — the Brandeisian idea that state and local governments can “test” new ideas without doing any harm to the rest of the country.
  26. paraphrase (verb) – reword, rephrase, express in other words, express differently, restate.
  27. fount (noun) – source, well head, fountainhead.
  28. reasoned (adjective) – logical, rational, well organized.
  29. stifle (verb) – suppress, restrain, contain, hold back.
  30. throttle (verb) – suppress/restrict, crack down on, stop/end.
  31. extant (adjective) – present, existent, existing.
  32. federalism/federal framework/system/arrangement (noun) – a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
  33. point out (phrasal verb) – identify, recognize, draw attention to, mention.
  34. inability (noun) – lack of ability, incapability, ineffectiveness.
  35. structure (verb) – arrange, organize, design.
  36. curb (noun) – restraint, restriction, control.
  37. public finance management system (PFMS) (noun) – earlier known as Central Plan Schemes Monitoring System (CPSMS). A comprehensive payment, receipt & accounting network. The primary objective of PFMS is to facilitate sound Public Financial Management System for Government of India (GoI) by establishing an efficient fund flow system as well as a payment cum accounting network. It is backbone for Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) to ensure timely credit of funds to citizens in a transparent manner. (Courtesy:
  38. mire in (verb) – entangle, mix up, involve, bog down.
  39. officialdom (noun) – civil service officials as a group, administrative officials, bureaucracy.
  40. swiftly (adverb) – quickly, rapidly, fast.
  41. apparatus (noun) – structure, system, framework, organization.
  42. ventilator (noun) – a respirator, a device (used for a patient to breathe).
  43. personal protective equipment (PPE) (noun) – safety gear; protective clothing, helmets, masks or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury/disease.
  44. colossal (adjective) – huge, massive, very large.
  45. supply chain (noun) – a network between a company and its suppliers to produce and distribute a specific product to the final buyer.
  46. grave (adjective) – terrible, awful, dreadful.
  47. uncertainty (noun) – unpredictability, unreliability, riskiness/precariousness.
  48. decentralise (verb) – transfer of the power/control (of a department/organisation/government) from a single place to other locations.
  49. distinct (adjective) –  well defined, different, unconnected.
  50. account (noun) – narrative, rendition, explanation, interpretation.
  51. manifest (adjective) – clear, evident, obvious.
  52. reading (noun) – interpretation, understanding, analysis.
  53. task with (verb) – assign a task to.
  54. (be) vested with (verb) – give (someone) the legal right.
  55. sanitation (noun) – it generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces (Courtesy: WHO).
  56. domain (noun) – field, area, sector.
  57. plenary (adjective) – unlimited, unrestricted, absolute.
  58. fortify (verb) – strengthen, reinforce, bolster, consolidate.
  59. bicameral (adjective) – two-chambered, divided, consisting/having two chambers.
  60. bicameralism (noun) –  a legislative body which is two-chambered (or) consisting/having two chambers.
  61. demarcation (noun) – an act of fixing of the boundary or limits.
  62. conscious (adjective) – deliberate, intentional, purposeful, considered.
  63. autonomous (noun) – self-governing, independent, self-determining.
  64. to that/this end (phrase) – for that reason.
  65. overlap (verb) – coincide or cover (partly) in time.
  66. accord (verb) – give, grant, present.
  67. levy (verb) – impose, charge (a tax, fee, fine).
  68. underlying (adjective) – fundamental, basic, primary.
  69. rationale (noun) – reason/basis; principle.
  70. fiscal dominion (noun) – the power or right of governing and controlling financial matters.
  71. mould (verb) – form, determine, create, configure.
  72. paradox (noun) – contradiction, mystery, conundrum, anomaly.
  73. invariably (adverb) – always, every time/each time; habitually/inevitably.
  74. fructify (verb) – make fruitful/productive.
  75. appendage (noun) – addition, attachment, addendum; projecting part.
  76. time and again (phrase) – frequently, often, repeatedly.
  77. take away (phrasal verb) – remove, appropriate, take out.
  78. rally against (verb) – to express opposition publicly.
  79. so much so that (phrase) – to such a great degree/extent.
  80. undertaking (noun) – scheme, plan, effort, pursuit.
  81. steer (verb) – guide, conduct, direct/lead.
  82. leitmotif (noun) – subject, theme, talking point.
  83. manifesto (noun) – (policy) statement, declaration, pronouncement of a political party issued before an election.
  84. keel (noun) – base, bottom, underside (support for framework).
  85. on an even keel (phrase) – staying stable and normal (after a period of difficulty).
  86. ostensible (adjective) – apparent, seeming, superficial, alleged/purported.
  87. at best (phrase) – simply, merely, only.
  88. hail (verb) – acclaim, praise, applaud, commend.
  89. ought to (modal verb) – must, should.
  90. underline (verb) – emphasize, highlight, underscore.
  91. offset (verb) – nullify, counterbalance; make amends for, compensate for.
  92. concomitant (adjective) – associated, related, connected.
  93. notably (adverb) – especially, particularly, primarily.
  94. far from (phrase) – not, not at all, nowhere near.
  95. render (verb) – make, cause to be, cause to become.
  96. nugatory (adjective) – worthless/meaningless, futile, useless.
  97. sovereignty (noun) – self-rule, self-legislation, self-government; autonomy, independence.
  98. strike (verb) – affect, afflict, attack. 
  99. edifice (noun) – a (complex) system/structure.
  100. grace (noun) – blessing.
  101. palpable (adjective) – noticeable, appreciable, discernible.
  102. instinct (noun) – natural tendencyinclination, urge/desire.
  103. slew of (noun) – a large number of, lot, range.
  104. money bill (noun) – The Bill deals with issues such as receipt and spending of money, such as tax laws, laws governing borrowing and expenditure of the government, prevention of black money etc. Under India’s constitutional design, money bill requires only the Lok Sabha’s affirmation/approval (bypassing Rajya Sabha’s affirmation/approval) only for it to turn into law.
  105. bid (noun) – attempt, effort, try.
  106. bypass (verb) – circumvent, avoid, dodge.
  107. sanction (noun) – permission, approval, consent (official).
  108. scarcely (adverb) – hardly, barely; rarely.
  109. weaponise (verb) – use as a weapon.
  110. consolidate (verb) – strengthen, reinforce, fortify.
  111. perhaps (adverb) – maybepossibly.
  112. egregious (adjective) – shocking, horrible/terrible, very bad.
  113. gut (verb) – remove, destroy, ruin, wipe out (internal parts of a structure entirely).
  114. secure (verb) – get, obtain, acquire.
  115. consent (noun) – agreement, assent, permission/approval.
  116. to be sure (phrase) – admittedly, beyond question, undoubtedly.
  117. impulse (noun) – (strong & sudden) urge/instinct, compulsion, need.
  118. appropriate (verb) – secure, acquire, wrest/claim, seize, take over.
  119. command (noun) – a group of higher level people having control over a particular group of people.
  120. susceptible (adjective) – subject to, inclined to, predisposed to, liable to.
  121. wrought (verb) – (old) past and past participle of work. cause, effect.
  122. diverse (adjective) – manifold, multiple, various.
  123. heterogeneous (adjective) – diverse, diversified, wide-ranging.
  124. polity (noun) – a politically organized society (or state or unit).
  125. regard (verb) – consider, look on, view, see.
  126. intricate (adjective) – very detailed, complicated, complex.
  127. niceties (noun) – (precise) details, particulars, specifics, subtleties.
  128. nettlesome (adjective) – annoying, irritating, bothersome, disagreeable.
  129. trifle (noun) – unimportant matter, unimportant thing, trivial matter, nothing.
  130. illusory (adjective) – imaginary, fancied, unreal.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020:

The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (Needed, greater decentralisation of power) – Apr 09, 2020

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