The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021

China’s developmental pathway over the last century has been spectacular. No country in history has ever grown faster and more dynamically. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021:

  1. defence (noun) – the act of defending one’s action against the opposition; protection, shielding, safeguarding.
  2. noisy (adjective) – vociferous, clamorous, tumultuous, talkative.
  3. specious (adjective) – misleading, deceptive, false.
  4. much more (phrase) – a lot more.
  5. come down (phrasal verb) – decline, decrease, reduce.
  6. prospects (noun) – chances, possibilities, expectations, outlook, future.
  7. informal/unorganized sector (noun) – informal economy, grey economy; it is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
  8. formal sector/organized sector (noun) – formal economy; it is the part of an economy that is taxed, or monitored by any form of government.
  9. precarious (adjective) – risky, dangerous, unsafe; hazardous, perilous, unreliable.
  10. startle (verb) – surprise, shock, alarm, frighten/scare.
  11. lag (verb) – fall behind, straggle, fall back.
  12. point out (phrasal verb) – identify, mention, indicate, draw attention to.
  13. fall behind (phrasal verb) – fail to keep up with others; lag, fall back.
  14. track record (noun) – previous performance, previous accomplishments, previous achievements.
  15. commentator (noun) – critic, analyst, observer.
  16. facile (adjective) – simplistic, superficial, oversimplified; effortless, easy, undemanding, unexacting.
  17. din (noun) – uproar, noise, commotion.
  18. insulate (verb) – protect, safeguard, shield.
  19. cacophony (noun) – noise, din, uproar, discord.
  20. line (noun) – way, approach, method, procedure.
  21. embrace (verb) – welcome, accept, support, back.
  22. multilateral (adjective) – involving many different countries/parties/organizations.
  23. technocrat (noun) – a supporter of technocracy. technocracy (noun) – the government by a group of people with both political power as well as technical knowledge.
  24. fantasy (noun) – make-believe, daydreaming, pipe dream, fanciful notion, wish, wishful thinking.
  25. right-wing (adjective) – conservative, rightist, ultra-right, alt-right.
  26. autocrat (noun) – authoritarian, totalitarian; dictator, despot.
  27. strangeness (noun) – oddity, eccentricity, abnormality, peculiarity, irregularity.
  28. bedfellow (noun) – a person or thing allied or closely connected with another.
  29. alarm (noun) – danger signal, distress signal, alert.
  30. stand up to (phrasal verb) – defy, confront, challenge, oppose openly, resist; withstand, survive, come through, outlive.
  31. contrary to (phrase) – conflicting with, opposed to.
  32. whim (noun) – wish, desire, impulse, urge.
  33. regime (noun) – government.
  34. state-building (noun) – it is creating and strengthening the institutions necessary to support long-term economic, social, and political development.
  35. millennia (noun) – plural form of millennium (a period of a thousand years).
  36. authoritarianism (noun) – autocracy, totalitarianism, draconianism. 
  37. authoritarian (adjective) – oppressive, draconian, dictatorial, totalitarian.
  38. stripe (noun) – variety, kind, type, category.
  39. laggard (noun) – slower, sluggish/stagnant, snail-paced.
  40. dictatorship (noun) – totalitarianism, absolute rule, autocracy.
  41. pink wave (noun) – turn to the left; a political wave and perception of a turn towards left-wing governments in Latin American democracies moving away from the neoliberal economic model at the start of the 21st century. 
  42. populist (adjective) – relating to the political approach which claims that it is representing the common/ordinary people.
  43. prosperity (noun) – success, welfare, comfort, security, well-being, fortune.
  44. usher in (verb) – start, begin, initiate, introduce.
  45. instructive (adjective) – informative, instructional, informational, explanatory, telling, revealing; good example, case study.
  46. take-off (noun) – ascent, climbing, mounting, soaring.
  47. rely on (phrasal verb) – depend on; resort to, have recourse to.
  48. repression (noun) – suppression, oppression, quelling, restraining/stifling.
  49. inclusive (adjective) – all-inclusive, comprehensive.
  50. pointedly (adverb) – directly, unambiguously, unquestionably.
  51. thrive (verb) – flourish, prosper, grow vigorously, develop well.
  52. measure (noun) – action, step, procedure.
  53. coincidence (noun) – co-occurrence, coexistence.
  54. sustained (adjective) – continuous, constant, steady.
  55. popular (adjective) – public, societal.
  56. in contrast (phrase) – when compared to another.
  57. in place (phrase) – established.
  58. accompany (verb) – occur with, co-occur with, coincide with, coexist with, go with, go along with, appear with.
  59. stagnation (noun) – lack of activity/development.
  60. hold up (phrasal verb) – support, hold, sustain, keep up.
  61. hubbub (noun) – commotion, clamour; confusion/chaos.
  62. presume (verb) – assume, suppose, believe.
  63. cater to (phrasal verb) – try to satisfy/fulfil a need of.
  64. hubris (noun) – feeling of superiority, excessive self-importance, excessive pride, excessive self-confidence/self-glory, overconfidence, arrogance.
  65. venal (adjective) – corrupt, corruptible, open to bribery, grafting.
  66. swath (noun) – a wide area of something.
  67. electorate (noun) – all the people who entitled to vote in an election.
  68. negotiation (noun) – discussions, talks, deliberation; discussing the terms of, arrangement.
  69. spectrum (noun) – wide range/variety of.
  70. identity (noun) – a social category, a set of persons marked by a label and distinguished by rules deciding membership and (alleged) characteristic features or attributes; individuality, character, originality.
  71. catastrophic (adjective) – destructive, ruinous, disastrous.
  72. compromise (noun) – agreement, deal, understanding, settlement. 
  73. bridge (noun) – cross over, go over, pass over, extend across.
  74. interest (noun) – benefit, advantage.
  75. imperative (noun) – necessary condition, precondition, essential requirement.
  76. sustainability (noun) – the ability to exist constantly; it refers generally to the capacity for the biosphere and human civilization to co-exist.
  77. welfare state (noun) – a form of government in which the state protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of the citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for citizens unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. A system wherein the government agrees to underwrite certain levels of employment, income, education, medical, social security and housing for all its citizens.
  78. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act/Scheme (MGNREGA), 2005 (noun) – an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘right to work’. It aims to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
  79. right to information (RTI) (noun) – It empowers every citizen to seek any information from the Government, promotes transparency and accountability in the working of the Government.
  80. testament (noun) – witness/evidence, proof, testimony.
  81. common good (noun) – general welfare, or public benefit.
  82. autocratic (adjective) – undemocratic, totalitarian, authoritarian; domineering, high-handed.
  83. fiat (noun) – decree, edict, order, precept.
  84. societal (adjective) – relating to society.
  85. deliberation (noun) – consideration, thought/thinking, careful discussion, contemplation.
  86. tryst (noun) – (romantic) meeting, session, engagement, rendezvous.
  87. affinity (noun) – empathy, rapport, sympathy; relationship, bond, connection.
  88. endow (verb) – give, provide, equip.
  89. nurture (verb) – encourage, advance, foster, develop.
  90. unconscionable (adjective) – unethical, immoral, unprincipled, wrong.
  91. discount (verb) – dismiss, ignore, reject, brush off, gloss over.
  92. cost (noun) – loss, damage, undesirable consequences, adverse effects, disadvantage.
  93. famine (noun) – deficiency, shortfall, lack, insufficiency, scarcity (of food).
  94. China’s one child policy (noun) – This had been enforced by then-leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979-80 to slow population growth. The one-child policy led to a severe gender imbalance in the country. 
  95. excesses (noun) – uncontrolled behaviour; unrestricted conduct; extreme, violent actions which are unacceptable.
  96. inevitable (adjective) – unavoidable, unpreventable, inescapable, certain, sure to happen.
  97. irredeemable (adjective) – habitual, confirmed.  
  98. instinct (noun) – (natural) urge/desire, tendency, inclination, compulsion.
  99. predation (noun) – the action of attacking.
  100. denounce (verb) – condemn, criticize, attack, censure, reject.
  101. nihilism (noun) – negativity, cynicism, pessimism.
  102. interpretation (noun) – explanation, elucidation, clarification, definition; examination, evaluation, analysis.  
  103. quarrelsome (adjective) – argumentative, factious, confrontational, contentious.
  104. cumbersome (adjective) – complicated, complex; awkward/hard to deal with.
  105. elite (noun) – high society people; the group of most powerful people in a society; best.
  106. subordinate (adjective) – lower-ranking, junior, second-fiddle, supporting
  107. diverse (adjective) – involving people from a range of different social and ethnic backgrounds.
  108. liberty (noun) – freedom, independence.
  109. trade-off (noun) – a situation in which you must choose between (balance) two things that are opposite or cannot be had at the same time; a compromise; swap, exchange.
  110. play a part/role (phrase) – contribute to, be instrumental in, be a factor in.
  111. pluralistic (adjective) – coexistent; (of people) exist in harmony irrespective of various differences.
  112. cold (adjective) – indifferent, dispassionate, impersonal, formal.
  113. utilitarian (adjective) – sensible, realistic, practical, effective, pragmatic.
  114. calculus (noun) – calculation, estimation, reasoning.
  115. abstract (verb) – separate, detach, isolate, dissociate.
  116. backslide (noun) – degeneration, deterioration, decline, slippage, slide.
  117. object lesson (adjective) – a practical example of a principle or ideal.
  118. dismiss (verb) – reject, deny, spurn, disregard, brush off, shrug off. 
  119. centralise (verb) – concentrate, bring under one roof, consolidate, control (under one authority).
  120. personalise (verb) – customize something to meet someone’s individual requirements.
  121. undermine (verb) – weaken, subvert, sabotage, damage.
  122. silence (verb) – muffle, mute, tone down, suppress, reduce.
  123. imprison (verb) – incarcerate, put in prison jail, lock up, take into custody, confine, detain.
  124. in the name of (phrase) – for the sake of, at the behest of.
  125. nationalism (noun) – it refers to a system (with a narrow set of ideas) created by a group of people who believe their nation is superior to all others. It is also a perception of national superiority and an orientation toward national dominance- called chauvinism (excessive nationalism).
  126. dismal (adjective) – bad, poor, dreadful, awful, terrible. 
  127. at best (phrase) – only, simply, but, nothing but.
  128. flourish (verb) – develop, improve, progress, evolve, thrive, prosper.
  129. sputter (verb) – proceed unevenly/erratically; crack, buzz, hiss.
  130. contraction (noun) – In economics, it refers to a decline in national output as measured by gross domestic product.
  131. sizeable (adjective) – substantial, considerable, significant.
  132. demonetisation (noun) – the act of depriving a currency unit (note/coin) of its status as money.
  133. instance (noun) – example, typical case, case in point, sample.
  134. incoherence (noun) – the standard of being illogical, inconsistent, or unclear.
  135. fuel (verb) – intensify, fortify, support, vitalize.
  136. sycophancy (noun) – submissive/obedient behaviour towards someone important in order to gain advantage.
  137. myopia (noun) – narrow-mindedness, short-sightedness, lack of foresight.
  138. expose (verb) – reveal, show, display, exhibit, unveil.
  139. callousness (noun) – heartlessness, harshness, insensitivity.
  140. arrogance (noun) – hubris, egotism, self-importance, sense of superiority.
  141. front (noun) – a particular situation or area of activity.
  142. pursuit (noun) – quest for, search for.
  143. prototypical (adjective) – indicating a typical form of something.
  144. variant (noun) – variation, form.
  145. ethnic (adjective) – relating to a population subgroup (cultural, national, traditional/folk) with a common national or cultural tradition.
  146. norm (noun) – standard, convention.
  147. weaponise (verb) – use as a weapon.
  148. polarisation (noun) – separation of two contrasting groups (based on different opinions/beliefs).
  149. demonisation (noun) – the depiction or portrayal of someone/something as bad/threatening.
  150. unravel (verb) – disentangle, separate out; fall apart, come apart, fail, collapse, go wrong.
  151. fabric (noun) – the basic/fundamental structure.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (In defence of India’s noisy democracy) – Jul 10, 2021

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