The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021

Bangladesh and India both celebrated the golden jubilee of Bangladesh’s Independence recently, alongside the birth centenary of ‘Banghabandu’ Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021:

  1. endeavour (noun) – activity, pursuit; aim/effort.
  2. accolade (noun) – acclaim, praise/tribute, applause, commendation.
  3. relatively (adverb) – comparatively, proportionately, somewhat, to a certain extent/degree.
  4. prosperous (adjective) – flourishing, thriving, successful, productive.
  5. golden jubilee (noun) – 50th anniversary.
  6. alongside (preposition) – together with.
  7. centenary (noun) – the hundredth anniversary.
  8. outburst (noun) – eruption, outflow/release, outbreak, flare up (of something like emotion).
  9. low-key (adjective) – modest, understated, muted, subtle, low-profile.
  10. ash (noun) – remains.
  11. presumably (adverb) – probably, in all likelihood, undoubtedly, seemingly.
  12. triumph (noun) – victory, win, achievement, success.
  13. reticent (adjective) – reserved, introverted, restrained, uncommunicative/close-lipped.
  14. acknowledge (verb) – admit, accept, realize.
  15. architect (noun) – originator, creator, founder.
  16. stand (noun) – attitude, point of view, opinion, standpoint.
  17. plausible (adjective) – likely, probable, possible; believable, conceivable.
  18. put forward (phrasal verb) – propose, introduce, submit, present. 
  19. quarter (noun) – point, source, place.
  20. seminal (adjective) – influential, major, important.
  21. notwithstanding (conjunction) – although, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, even though.
  22. swashbuckling (adjective) – daring, heroic, adventurous, bold, valiant, fearless.
  23. canard (noun) – rumour, unfounded story/report.
  24. demonise (verb) – to show someone/something as evil/wicked/bad.
  25. so-called (adjective) – commonly named.
  26. act of omission and commission (phrase) – act of omission and commission are, respectively, things someone failed to do, and things someone has done.
  27. amount to (verb) – be equal to, be equivalent to, represent.
  28. conceive (verb) –  imagine, envisage, visualize; think up, devise, formulate.
  29. pull off (phrasal verb) – achieve, succeed in, accomplish.
  30. sound (verb) – appear, look like, seem.
  31. exaggerated (adjective) – overstated, overemphasized, amplified, excessive.
  32. steely (adjective) – firm, fixed, single-minded.
  33. resolve (noun) – determination, willpower, firmness, resolution, courage.
  34. for instance (phrase) – as an example.
  35. War Cabinet (noun) – a committee formed by a government in a time of war. It is usually a subset of the full executive cabinet of ministers.
  36. Seventh Fleet (noun) – Established on March 15, 1943, it is the largest forward-deployed U.S. fleet with 60 to 70 ships, 300 aircraft and 40,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel. (“the fleet” means a country’s navy).
  37. aircraft carrier (noun) – a warship that is equipped with a full-length flight deck for an aircraft to take off/land.
  38. USS Enterprise (CVN-65) (noun) – the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the largest active warship in the world when commissioned by the US Navy in November 1961. But it is now decommissioned (withdrawn from service).
  39. steam up (phrasal verb) – to make something covered with steam (heat); panic, become agitated, become very angry, go wild.
  40. hardly (adverb) – barely, only just, narrowly, slightly.
  41. diffidence (noun) – unassertiveness, modesty, insecurity, self-doubt, apprehension, uncertainty.
  42. make clear (phrase) – explain, clarify, elucidate.
  43. embark upon (phrasal verb) – start, begin, initiate.
  44. boast (verb) – gloat, show off, congratulate oneself, exaggerate, overstate.
  45. noteworthy (adjective) – worthy of mention, worth taking a look at, interesting, important.
  46. accomplish (verb) – achieve, complete, fulfil.
  47. spoils (noun) – benefits, advantages.
  48. voluntarily (adverb) – intentionally, knowingly.
  49. unconditionally (adverb) – without conditions/limits.
  50. hand over (phrasal verb) – pass, transfer, assign.
  51. magnanimity (noun) – big-heartedness, generosity, humanity, liberality.
  52. seldom (adverb) – hardly, rarely, almost never.
  53. annals (noun) – (historical) document, record, report.
  54. signal (adjective) – notable, noteworthy, remarkable, significant, memorable, unforgettable.
  55. all out (adjective) – intense, aggressive, vigorous, powerful.
  56. contribute to (verb) – play a part in, be instrumental in, make for, lead to, cause.
  57. carve out (phrasal verb) – establish, develop, create something (by taking something from a larger whole) with effort.
  58. pogrom (noun) – (planned) mass slaughter, mass killing, mass murder (of a particular ethnic group).
  59. highlight (verb) – underline, underscore, emphasize, call attention to.
  60. embellish (verb) – elaborate, beautify, exaggerate, expand on.
  61. credentials (noun) – identities, qualities; achievement, experience, knowledge.
  62. refugee (noun) – displaced person, asylum seeker, exile, deportee, stateless person, émigré.
  63. stream (verb) – (of the crowd) move in a continuous flow.
  64. striking (adjective) – noticeable, obvious, conspicuous, evident, visible, distinct.
  65. calamitous (adjective) – destructive, ruinous, disastrous, catastrophic.
  66. strain (noun) – pressure, demands, burdens.
  67. circumspection (noun) – caution, carefulness, care, wariness.
  68. give in (phrasal verb) – capitulate, admit/concede defeat, give up, surrender, yield, submit, back down.
  69. clamour (noun) – protest, complaint, outcry/commotion.
  70. premature (adjective) – untimely, early, too soon/too early; ill-timed, hasty.
  71. intervention (noun) – the process of intervening in something; involvement, interference, intrusion, meddling.
  72. adhere to (verb) – abide by, follow, obey, comply with.
  73. swear in (phrasal verb) – admit into office, inaugurate, introduce (into office).
  74. install (verb) – swear in, induct,  inaugurate, introduce, appoint, admit to office.
  75. government-in-exile (noun) – a government temporarily moved to a foreign land as their territory/country is occupied by another country. The government-in-exile is unable to exercise legal power. They plan to return to their country after it is liberated and regain formal power.
  76. liberation (noun) – freedom, independence.
  77. legitimately (adverb) – legally, fairly, truly.
  78. acquire (verb) – get, obtain.
  79. legitimacy (noun) – legality, validity, lawfulness.
  80. finesse (noun) – skill, subtlety, expertise; diplomacy, delicacy, sensitivity, judgement.
  81. order (noun) – level, class, position.
  82. gruesome (adjective) – horriblegrimdreadful/terrible.
  83. tale (noun) – story.
  84. untold (adjective) – unreported, unrevealed, undisclosed, unpublished, secret, suppressed.
  85. atrocity (noun) – act of barbarity/brutality, cruelty, inhumanity.
  86. diplomatic (adjective) – (delicate & sensitive) consular, foreign-policy.
  87. dispatch (noun) – report, bulletin, missive, written communication, written message.
  88. groundswell (noun) – the sudden increase of a certain feeling/opinion among a large section of people.
  89. persecuted (adjective) – oppressed, victimized; troubled/suffering.
  90. Indo-Soviet Treaty, 1971 (noun) – The Indo–Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation was a treaty signed between India and the Soviet Union in August 1971 that specified mutual strategic cooperation. It had a direct impact on the decisive battle between India and Pakistan in the eastern war theatre. The treaty expedited the Bangladesh War of Independence. The treaty was a significant deviation from India’s previous position of non-alignment in the Cold War and the prelude to the Bangladesh war. The Indo-Soviet treaty was later adopted as the India-Bangladesh Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in 1972.
  91. a shot in the arm (phrase) – (figuratively) boost, fillip, stimulus, impetus, encouragement; (literally) an injection of drugs.
  92. stay the course (idiom) – work hard till the end to accomplish the task.
  93. marked (adjective) – noticeable, pronounced, distinct, striking, clear, glaring, obvious.
  94. contrast (noun) – difference, variation, dissimilarity.
  95. hostility (noun) – opposition, conflict, resentment, enmity, aversion, antipathy.
  96. dismember (verb) – disjoint, cut off, break up, disintegrate.
  97. constant (adjective) – continuous, persistent, round-the-clock.
  98. Treaty of Peace and Friendship 1972 (noun) – The India–Bangladesh Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Peace was a treaty that was signed on 19 March 1972 forging close bilateral relations between India and the newly established state of Bangladesh.
  99. culminate (verb) – come to an end with, finish with, conclude with, terminate with.
  100. limb (noun) – branch.
  101. in concert (phrase) – working together.
  102. cardinal (adjective) – fundamental, basic, primary, main.
  103. viz. (adverb) – namely, specifically, in other words.
  104. in vain (phrase) – unsuccessfully, without success, with no result.
  105. erroneously (adjective) – incorrectly, in a mistaken way.
  106. humanitarian (adjective) – compassionate, humane, socially concerned.
  107. humanitarian crisis (noun) – it is also called as humanitarian disaster; a situation with high levels of human suffering in which basic human welfare is in danger on a large scale.
  108. The West (noun) – The Western world consisting of the majority of Europe, the Americas.
  109. let down (phrasal verb) – fail to support, abandon, neglect.
  110. plight (noun) – difficult situation, trouble/difficulty, quandary.
  111. beleaguered (adjective) – hard-pressed, troubled, suffering; under pressure, under stress.
  112. wrath (noun) – anger, rage, fury, annoyance, indignation, outrage.
  113. exploit (noun) – feat, deed, act, adventure.
  114. intelligence agency (noun) – a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
  115. Iron Curtain (noun) – the military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet bloc and the Western bloc from 1945 to 1990).
  116. a pat on the back (phrase) – praise, honour, commendation, applause.
  117. The Intelligence Bureau (IB) (noun) – India’s domestic intelligence, internal security and counter-intelligence agency.
  118. The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW/RAW) (noun) – the foreign intelligence agency of India.
  119. bifurcate (verb) – split, divide, separate.
  120. play a part/role (phrase) – contribute to, be instrumental in, be a factor in.
  121. behind the scenes (phrase) – secretly, privately, surreptitiously.
  122. prepare the ground (phrase) – to pave the way, plan/organize, make it easier for future (development).
  123. opportune (adjective) – favourable, advantageous, optimistic.
  124. outstanding (noun) – remarkable, extraordinary, exceptional.
  125. pseudonym (noun) – assumed name, nickname, incognito/alias.
  126. irregular (noun) – guerrilla, underground fighter.
  127. fashion (verb) – construct, make, create.
  128. let alone (phrase) – to say nothing of; not to mention.
  129. thrive (verb) – flourish, prosper, grow vigorously, develop well.
  130. given (preposition) – considering, taking into account, bearing in mind.
  131. nascent (adjective) – just beginning, developing, emerging, rising, burgeoning.
  132. amidst (preposition) – amid, in the middle of; during.
  133. unprecedented (adjective) – not done or experienced before.
  134. upheaval (noun) – disruption, turmoil, disorder, chaos, mayhem.
  135. scarce (adjective) – insufficient, deficient, inadequate.
  136. rive (verb) – split apart, tear apart.
  137. internecine (adjective) – internal, civil; destructive, ruinous, fierce.
  138. vortex (noun) – countercurrent, counterflow, whirlwind/eddy (circular movement). Figuratively to refer confusion, disturbance, commotion.
  139. Gross domestic product (GDP) (noun) – a measure of economic activity in a country. It is the total value of a country’s annual output of goods and services.
  140. erstwhile (adjective) – old, previous, former, then.
  141. catalyst (noun) – someone/something that triggers/causes/gives rise to an event suddenly/unexpectedly; stimulus, motivation, fillip, encouragement.
  142. mirror (verb) – reflect, reproduce, imitate, parallel; reiterate.
  143. far-sighted (adjective) – forward-looking, visionary, proactive, fore-thoughtful.
  144. acid test (noun) – a crucial test (of the quality or worth of something).
  145. eventuality (noun) – a possible outcome, possibility.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Endeavour, leadership and the story of a nation) – Apr 26, 2021

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