The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021

If there is one tool in the COVID-19 pandemic response, which India has been slow in adoption and has used sub-optimally, it is genomic sequencing. An effective COVID-19 pandemic response requires,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021:

  1. genomic (adjective) – relating to the gene (genetic material) of a living thing.
  2. sequence (noun) – the complete order of compounds/building blocks (nucleotides) of nucleic acids, such as RNA or DNA.
  3. genome (noun) – the genetic material (a complete set of DNA, including all of its genes) of an organism. The sum total of the genetic material of a cell or an organism.
  4. genome sequence (noun) – a process that determines the order, or sequence, of the DNA (nucleotides i.e., A, C, G and U) in each of the genes present in the virus’s genome.
  5. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  6. variant (noun) – different or form or version or mutant of something (virus).
  7. immune escape/evasion (noun) – it occurs when the immune system of a host, especially of a human being, is unable to respond to an infectious agent, or in other words that the host’s immune system is no longer able to recognize and eliminate a pathogen such as a virus. 
  8. re-strategised (adjective) – re-planned, re-arranged, re-formulated. 
  9. sub-optimally (adverb) – in a way/manner that is below the optimal (best possible) level or standard of something.
  10. inter alia (adverb) – Latin for “among other things”.
  11. keep track of (phrase) – monitor, follow, keep up with, record.
  12. Variants of Interest (VOI) (noun) – A variant with specific genetic markers that have been associated with changes to receptor binding, reduced neutralization by antibodies generated against previous infection or vaccination, reduced efficacy of treatments, potential diagnostic impact, or predicted increase in transmissibility or disease severity.
  13. Variant of Concern (VOC) (noun) – A variant for which there is evidence of an increase in transmissibility, more severe disease (e.g., increased hospitalizations or deaths), significant reduction in neutralization by antibodies generated during previous infection or vaccination, reduced effectiveness of treatments or vaccines, or diagnostic detection failures.
  14. credit (noun) – praise, commendation, acclaim, approval, acknowledgement, recognition.
  15. vaccination (noun) – treatment with a vaccine to protect against a particular disease; immunization.
  16. alongside (preposition) – together with.
  17. scale up (phrasal verb) – increase, expand, augment; step up. 
  18. timely (adjective) – prompt, appropriate, opportune, well timed, at the right time.
  19. falter (verb) – hesitate, delay, be undecided, be irresolute.
  20. Indian SARS-CoV2 Genomic Consortia (INSACOG) (noun) – INSACOG refers to the Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genome Sequencing Consortia. The INSACOG consortium of scientists, spanning 10 labs across the country, and involved in sequencing genomes of coronavirus samples in different States, had been giving regular updates on the threat from new strains to the government.
  21. it is no surprise (phrase) – as expected, as anticipated, as predicted.
  22. B.1.617.2 (noun) – a variant of the coronavirus, first identified in India, is renamed as the ‘Delta variant’ by the World Health Organization (WHO) and this variant is reclassified as Variant of Concern (VOC). The B.1.617.1 strain has been reclassified to a Variant of Interest (VOI) and labelled variant “Kappa”.
  23. lineage (noun) – sequence.
  24. double mutant/B.1.617 (noun) – a unique “double mutant” coronavirus variant – with a combination of mutations not seen anywhere else in the world – has been found in India. The ‘double mutant’ virus that as having a bearing on the spread of the pandemic in India, has a formal scientific classification: B.1.617. (The UK Variant (Alpha variant) has a formal scientific classification: B.1.1.7. The South Africa Variant (Beta variant) has a formal scientific classification: B.1.351. The Brazil Variant (Gamma variant) has a formal scientific classification: P.1).
  25. compound (verb) – intensify, increase, exacerbate, heighten, aggravate, worsen.
  26. strain (noun) – variety, kind, type; variant, mutant.
  27. reportedly (adverb) – supposedly, seemingly, apparently, allegedly.
  28. amidst (preposition) – amid, in the middle of; during.
  29. findings (noun) – conclusion, result; decision.
  30. Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR-IGIB) (noun) – It is a scientific research institute devoted primarily to biological research. It is a part of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India. The institute was founded in 1977 as the Center for Biochemical Technology with a primary focus on biochemical research, but has since shifted its research focus to integrative biology.
  31. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) (noun) – founded in 1942, the CSIR is an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India. It has 37 research centers and 39 field stations or augmentation focuses spread the country over. The innovative work exercises of CSIR incorporate different fields, for example, aerospace engineering, Structural engineering, ocean sciences, Life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environment.
  32. National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) (noun) – Formerly National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD). The institute was established to function as a national centre of excellence for control of communicable diseases. The function of the institute also included various areas of training and research using multi-disciplinary integrated approach. The institute was, in addition, expected to provide expertise to the States and Union Territories (UTs) on rapid health assessment and laboratory based diagnostic services. Surveillance of communicable diseases and outbreak investigation also formed an indispensable part of its activities.
  33. The Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR) (noun) – Established in 2011 as an ‘Institution of National Importance’ , the Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR) has adopted the mandate to create and train some of the best of tomorrow’s Science & Technology leaders through a combination of innovative and novel curricula, pedagogy (teaching) and evaluation. AcSIR’s focus will be on imparting instruction and providing research opportunities in such areas that are not routinely taught in regular academic universities in India.
  34. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  35. pre-print (noun) – a full draft of a research paper that is shared publicly before it has been peer reviewed/has been sent to press for publication.
  36. peer-reviewed (adjective) – relating to a process by which something research or publication is evaluated by a group of experts in the appropriate field.
  37. insight (noun) – deep understanding, recognition, realization, revelation.
  38. ancestral virus (noun) – ancient virus.
  39. viral load (noun) – the amount/quantity of virus in an infected person’s blood.
  40. reflect (verb) – indicate, show, display, demonstrate.  
  41. Ct value (noun) – cycle threshold value; the ‘Ct value’ in RT-PCR tests for determining whether a patient is positive for Covid-19. Ct is a value that emerges during RT-PCR tests, the gold standard for detection of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. According to the ICMR, a patient is considered Covid-positive if the Ct value is below 35.
  42. RT-PCR testing (noun) – Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) Testing; it is one of the most accurate laboratory methods for detecting, tracking, and studying the coronavirus. It is a nuclear-derived method for detecting the presence of specific genetic material from any pathogen, including a virus. (the pathogen is a bacteria/virus that causes disease).
  43. result in (phrasal verb) – cause, bring on, bring about, call forth, give rise to.
  44. proportion (noun) – ratio.
  45. breakthrough infections (noun) – people getting infections after they are fully vaccinated is when the infections are caused by circulating virus variants, with potential immune escape mechanism, which might reduce the efficacy of vaccines. These are called “vaccine breakthrough infections.”
  46. vaccinate (verb) – inoculate, administer, introduce (with a vaccine to provide immunity against a disease).
  47. attribute (verb) – assign/ascribe; hold responsible for; connect/associate with.
  48. severity (noun) – seriousness.
  49. (case) fatality rate/ratio (noun) – in epidemiology, the proportion of people who die from a particular disease compared to all individuals diagnosed with the disease over a certain period of time.
  50. Public Health England (PHE) (noun) – The Public Health England (PHE) was set up on 1 April 2013 as an operationally autonomous executive agency of the Department of Health. Its mission is to protect and improve the nation’s health and to address inequalities through working with national and local government, the National Health Service (NHS), industry and the voluntary and community sector.
  51. interpret (verb) – explain, elucidate, clarify, make clear.
  52. hospitalisation (noun) – the act of taking (or) admitting someone to (or) in hospital for treatment.
  53. dose (noun) – an amount/quantity of something (e.g. vaccine).
  54. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  55. symptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with symptoms.
  56. asymptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with no symptoms.
  57. pre-symptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with mild illness/symptoms.
  58. The Lancet (noun) – a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is among the world’s oldest and best-known general medical journals.
  59. antibody (noun) – immunizer; it is also called ‘immunoglobulin’; a protective protein produced mainly by plasma (blood) cells in the immune system in response to the presence of antigens (disease-causing organisms (bacteria & viruses) and other harmful/toxic foreign substances like insect venom).
  60. candidate vaccine BNT162b2 (noun) – mRNA-based vaccine candidate produced by Pfizer and BioNTech.
  61. deploy (verb) – use, utilize, employ, make use of. 
  62. public health (noun) – the branch of medicine handling public health; public health is also the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities through education, policy-making, and research for disease and injury prevention.
  63. (medical) intervention (noun) – an activity directed at or performed on an individual with the object of improving health, treating disease or injury, or making a diagnosis.
  64. make a difference (phrase) – be important, have a significant effect on, to cause a change.
  65. agglomeration (noun) – assemblage, cluster.
  66. collated (adjective) – collected, gathered, combined.
  67. stratify (verb) – categorize, organize, sort.
  68. stratifier (noun) – category.
  69. gender (noun) – Gender is used to describe the characteristics of women and men that are socially constructed, while sex refers to those that are biologically determined.
  70. comorbid (adjective) – relating to the presence of one or more additional conditions (diseases/problems) co-occurring/co-existing with a primary condition (disease/problem).
  71. shot (noun) – injection, inoculation (of a vaccine/drug). 
  72. administer (verb) – dispense, provide, give, apply (a drug/vaccine).
  73. saturation coverage (noun) – thorough coverage (so that it is impossible to avoid or add to it).
  74. mandate (verb) – make mandatory.
  75. Oxford vaccine/Covishield (noun) – (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or (AZD1222) is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca, UK Ltd. (named Covishield in India). Serum Institute of India (SII), a biotechnology company has partnered with global pharma giant AstraZeneca and Oxford University for this vaccine candidate ‘Covidshield’.
  76. put on hold (phrase) – postpone, put back, hold off, defer, delay.
  77. predominant (adjective) – dominant, more powerful.
  78. deliberate (verb) – think about, consider, ponder, reflect on, contemplate.
  79. come up with (phrasal verb) – produce, put forward, present/submit.
  80. implications (noun) – consequence/outcome, ramification, repercussion.
  81. epidemiologist (noun) – an expert in the study of how disease spreads and can be controlled.
  82. strategy (noun) – plan of action.
  83. open up (phrasal verb) – make accessible; make available.
  84. predominantly (adverb) – mainly, mostly, commonly.
  85. adherence (noun) – compliance, observance, conformity.
  86. (public) behaviour (noun) – (in public health) it refers to efforts put in place to change people’s personal habits and attitudes, to prevent disease.
  87. corrective (adjective) – remedial, restorative, curative, reparative; correctional, punitive, reformatory.
  88. absolute (adjective) – definite, certain, unconditional, categorical, unquestionable, undoubted, unequivocal.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Bring genomic sequencing into the pandemic fight) – Jun 09, 2021

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