The Hindu Lead Article (At the edge of a new nuclear arms race) – Apr 27, 2020
In mid-April, a report issued by the United States State Department on “Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (At the edge of a new nuclear arms race) – Apr 27, 2020.
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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (At the edge of a new nuclear arms race) – Apr 27, 2020:
- on the edge of (phrase) – on the brink of, on the verge of a situation; at a crucial or critical point.
- nuclear arms race (noun) – an arms race competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.
- resume (verb) – restart, recommence, begin again.
- demise (noun) – end, disintegration, fall/ruin.
- ill-fated (adjective) – unfortunate, hapless, unlucky; cursed.
- Comprehensive Nuclear-Test–Ban Treaty (CTBT) (noun) – it is a multilateral treaty established (in 1996) to ban all nuclear tests in all places for all time. The CTBT is a “zero-yield” treaty, but it has failed to enter into force even after a quarter century.
- compliance (with) (noun) – adherence to, accordance with, conformity to.
- nonproliferation (noun) – the action of preventing the spread of something (particularly of nuclear weapons by the countries).
- disarmament (noun) – demilitarization, limitation or reduction of arms, deactivation of military weapons.
- nuclear weapon explosive yield (noun) – a nuclear weapon (bomb) is measured in terms of its explosive yield, which is referenced in terms of “tons,” “kilotons,” and “megatons” of the TNT explosive power they put off. For example, the explosive yield from a conventional bomb would be about 500 pounds (250 kilograms). The largest conventional weapon in the U.S. arsenal “Mother of all Bombs,” or MOAB is around 11 tons, about 44 times the size of a conventional bomb.
- low-yield (noun) – low yield nuclear weapons (bombs) can range from .1 kilotons to 10, 20, or 50 kilotons. A low-yield nuclear weapon is equivalent to 1,000 MOABs. That is equivalent to the sizes of bombs dropped by the U.S. over Nagasaki (Fat Man Bomb of about 20 kilotons) and Hiroshima (Little Boy bomb of about 15 kilotons) at the end of World War II.
- TNT (trinitrotoluene) (noun) – TNT is one of the most popular explosive compounds. The energy released in an explosion of 1 gram of TNT is approximately 4000 Joules. It is common to measure the power of an explosion by asking how much TNT would be needed to produce an explosion as powerful.
- undertaking (noun) – pledge/promise, agreement, commitment.
- inconsistent with (adjective) – in disagreement with, conflicting with, in opposition to.
- zero yield (noun) – it refers to a nuclear test where there is no explosive chain reaction of the sort caused by an atomic bomb nuclear warhead.
- understanding (noun) – agreement, deal, undertaking, pledge/promise.
- underlie (verb) – be fundamental, be basic, be essential.
- uncertain (adjective) – unsure, doubtful, dubious.
- growing (adjective) – increasing, intensifying, amplifying.
- rivalry (noun) – opposition, conflict, stifle/friction.
- harbinger (noun) – sign, indicator, indication, signal.
- mark (verb) – indicate, signify, identify.
- curb (verb) – restrain, control, contain, stifle, check.
- the Cold War (noun) – The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc and powers in the Eastern Bloc.
- atmospheric (adjective) – relating to the atmosphere of the earth.
- drive (verb) – propel, move, push.
- unilateral (adjective) – relating to a method of taking decisions (on international relations) by a state (country) individually without considering other states (countries).
- moratorium (noun) – a temporary suspension of an activity; embargo, ban, prohibition.
- contentious (adjective) – controversial, disputable, debatable.
- far fewer (phrase) – much less (with a large difference).
- validate (verb) – to check the accuracy of (something) and approve/certify.
- imply (verb) – suggest, indicate, implicate, signal.
- nuclear deterrence (noun) – the strategic concept of deterrence aims to prevent war. It is the justification virtually every nuclear state uses for maintaining nuclear arsenals (weapons) to deter (& intimidate/threaten) an enemy from attacking it.
- toy with (verb) – have thoughts about, consider an idea (casually).
- threshold (noun) – lower limit, starting point, the level (to react to something).
- comprehensive (adjective) – all-inclusive, complete, full.
- shut down (phrasal verb) – discontinue, cease activity, close.
- eventually (adverb) – in the end, in due course, after some time.
- come up with (phrasal verb) – put forward, suggest, recommend, propose.
- comprehensive test ban (noun) – it is defined as “zero yield” test ban that would prohibit supercritical hydro-nuclear tests but not subcritical hydrodynamic nuclear tests.
- supercritical (adjective) – (in nuclear physics) involving more than the critical mass.
- hydro-nuclear testing (noun) – In hydro-nuclear testing (nuclear weapon tests), fissile isotopes, such as uranium-235, uranium-233 and plutonium-239, are subjected to explode to deliver “full” nuclear yield. It is called “supercritical” because there will be critical mass formed, i.e., self-sustaining nuclear fission chain reaction will occur.
- sub-critical (adjective) – (in nuclear physics) involving less than the critical mass.
- hydrodynamic testing (noun) – In hydrodynamic testing, non-fissile isotopes, such as uranium-238 and plutonium-242, are subjected to enough pressure. It is called “subcritical” because there will be no critical mass formed, i.e., no self-sustaining nuclear fission chain reaction will occur. (Hydrodynamics refers to the physics involved when solids, under extreme conditions, begin to mix and flow like liquids).
- on board (phrase) – as a member (on to a team).
- prevail upon (verb) – persuade, induce, influence, prompt.
- unipolar (adjective) – (in international politics), relating to a distribution of power in which one state (country) exercises most of the cultural, economic, and military influence.
- supremacy (noun) – dominion, power, influence.
- hawk (noun) – a person who supports an aggressive policy. “Dove” means a person who supports peaceful policy.
- generously (adverb) – plentifully, amply, largely.
- carry out (phrasal verb) – conduct, perform, execute.
- entry-into-force provisions (noun) – provisions of the treaty determine the date on which the treaty enters into force, often at a specified time following its ratification or accession by a fixed number of states.
- anchor (verb) – connect, bind, attach.
- framework (noun) – structure, system, organisation.
- ratification (noun) – an act by which a State (Country) signifies an agreement to be legally
bound by the terms of a particular treaty. To ratify (approve) a treaty, the State first signs it and then fulfils
its own national legislative requirements. Once the appropriate national organ of the country (e.g.
Parliament) follows domestic constitutional procedures and makes a formal decision to be a party to the
- arm-twist (verb) – pressurize, push, force.
- sovereign (adjective) – independent, autonomous, self-governing; having independent authority and the right to govern itself.
- nevertheless (adverb) – in spite of that, even so, however.
- ironically (adverb) – paradoxically, unexpectedly, strangely.
- seismic (adjective) – relating to vibrations produced artificially by explosions.
- radionuclide (adjective) – relating to a radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope; is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable (nuclide is a type of atom whose nuclei have specific numbers of protons and neutrons).
- infrasound (adjective) – referred to as low-frequency sound, describes sound waves with a frequency below the lower limit of audibility (generally 20 Hz).
- hydroacoustic (adjective) – relating to the study of sound waves in the water and its applications. Hydroacoustic monitoring involves recording signals that show changes in water pressure generated by sound waves in the water.
- refrain from (verb) – stop oneself, abstain, desist from, hold back.
- back (verb) – support, endorse, uphold.
- allegation (noun) – charge, accusation, indictment.
- assert (verb) – declare, maintain, state.
- reliance (noun) – dependence; trust/confidence on something.
- diversified (adjective) – having a variety of something (weapons).
- arsenal (noun) – range/line-up/collection of (military) weapons & equipment are made and stored in a place.
- embark on (phrasal verb) – start, begin, initiate/commence.
- (nuclear) modernisation (noun) – the total renovation of the nuclear weapon arsenal or nuclear forces.
- go up (phrasal verb) – rise or increase.
- resumption (noun) – restarting, recommencement, reopening.
- explore (verb) – examine, evaluate.
- hypersonic (adjective) – relating to speeds of more than five times that of sound (mach 5).
- survivability (noun) – the ability to remain alive (or active) or continue to exist.
- considerably (adverb) – noticeably, significantly.
- transparency (noun) – clarity, straightforwardness, unambiguity.
- canister (noun) – metal container.
- suspicion (noun) – misgiving, doubt/qualm, distrust, scepticism.
- The New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) (noun) – an agreement for nuclear arms reduction between the United States and Russia, establishing a limit on deployed strategic warheads.
- account for (phrasal verb) – constitute, make up, comprise, form.
- point to (verb) – indicate, suggest, signal/signify.
- backtrack (verb) – retract, take back, go back on, disclaim/disavow.
- Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) (noun) – this treaty required the United States and the Soviet Union to eliminate and permanently agree to give up/renounce all of their nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of 500 to 5,500 kilometers.
- militarisation (noun) – the process by which a society organizes itself for military conflict and violence.
- novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
- pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
- prepare the ground (phrase) – to pave the way, plan/organize, make it easier for future (development).
1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context.
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (At the edge of a new nuclear arms race) – Apr 27, 2020: