The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021

In the build-up to the ‘Leaders’ Climate Summit’ organised by the United States this week (April 22-23), there has been a flurry of articles about whether India should announce a ‘net-zero’ emissions target, and by when. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021:

  1. low-carbon future (noun) – A low carbon future will involve: becoming more energy efficient, generating our electricity from renewable sources, moving to fuels with lower emissions (e.g. moving from peat and coal to gas), and ultimately away from fossil fuels altogether, increasing our use of electricity and bioenergy for heat and transport. improving the take-up of low carbon vehicles (electric and gas),  adopting new technologies as they emerge. These changes will require that we radically change our behaviour as citizens, communities, industry, and government.
  2. sector-led / industry-led (adjective) – used to explain something that is achieved by a particular industrial sector instead of a government.
  3. action-based / action-oriented (adjective) – taking action on the ground in order to deal with a problem/situation.
  4. framework (noun) – structure, system.
  5. drive (verb) – force, compel, prompt.
  6. transformation (noun) – change, transition, evolution.
  7. build-up (noun) – preparation for a particular event.
  8. summit (noun) – meeting, conference, conclave.
  9. flurry (noun) – spate, series, succession.
  10. net zero emissions/carbon neutrality (noun) – it means annual zero net CO2 emissions; Carbon neutrality means every ton of anthropogenic (human-caused or influenced) CO2 emitted is compensated with an equivalent amount of CO2 removed (e.g. via carbon sink or carbon sequestration).
  11. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (noun) – The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.
  12. pressure cooker (noun) – very stressful situation.
  13. diplomacy (noun) – negotiations, discussions, talks, dialogue, conversations (related to international politics).
  14. climate diplomacy (noun) – negotiations, discussions, talks, dialogue, conversations (related to climate change regime). 
  15. call (for) (noun) – demand, appeal; requirement, need, necessity.
  16. disproportionate (adjective) – inordinate, excessive, unreasonable, unfair.
  17. carbon space (noun) – the amount of carbon (or CO2) that can be put into the atmosphere.
  18. use up (phrasal verb) – take up, occupy.
  19. at home (phrase) – in one’s own country/place.
  20. vigour (noun) – strength, power, high level of activity.
  21. diplomatic (adjective) – (delicate & sensitive) consular, foreign-policy.
  22. nonetheless (adverb) – notwithstanding, nevertheless, in spite of that/however.
  23. climate-vulnerable (adjective) – ill-protected, easily affected by, prone to, at risk of (climate).
  24. up one’s game (phrase) – to improve one’s performance.
  25. lose sight of (phrase) – pay no attention to, fail to consider, fail to be aware of.
  26. deficit (noun) – shortfall, deficiency, shortage, lack.
  27. per-capita (adverb & adjective) – per person, for each, individually.
  28. the way forward (phrase) – something (a plan/action) that leads to success in the future.
  29. viable (adjective) – reasonable, practical, logical, sensible, effective.
  30. take on (phrasal verb) – undertake, accept, tackle,  adopt, assume, shoulder, embrace.
  31. decarbonisation (noun) – the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through the use of low carbon power sources, achieving a lower output of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere.
  32. compromise (verb) – undermine, weaken, be detrimental to, damage.
  33. concrete (adjective) – definite, specific, definitive; factual, actual/real.
  34. near-term (adjective) – short-term.
  35. aggressive (adjective) – forceful, insistent, vigorous.
  36. earnest (adjective) – serious, serious-minded,  sincere, impassioned, passionate.
  37. lock-in (noun) – arrangement.
  38. accomplish (verb) – achieve, complete, fulfil.
  39. competitiveness (noun) – it refers to the skill or ability to contend/compete with rivals for the same objective.
  40. consistent (adjective) – in agreement with, agreeing, in line with, conforming to.
  41. lay out (phrasal verb) – outline, frame, draft, draw up, formulate.
  42. contour (noun) – outline, shape, form.
  43. pledge (noun) – promise, undertaking, oath, agreement, assurance.
  44. illustrate (verb) – explain, elucidate, clarify. 
  45. ambitious (adjective) – formidable, challenging, demanding; aspiring.
  46. in one’s interest (phrase) – to the benefit of someone.
  47. de-carbonise (verb) – reduce carbon dioxide emissions (through the use of low carbon power sources, achieving a lower output of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere).
  48. puzzle (noun) – mystery, contradiction, irregularity/anomaly.
  49. greenhouse gas (noun) – heat-trapping gas; a gas (such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, etc) in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation, causing the greenhouse effect and warming of Earth’s temperature. (Courtesy: VOA Learning English).
  50. undertake (verb) – begin, start, launch into; engage in, become involved in, take part in.
  51. urbanisation (noun) – a process of creating urban areas. It is a result of population migration from rural areas in addition to natural urban demographic growth.
  52. renewable (adjective) – sustainable, be renewed, imperishable, not used up/depleted.
  53. by/in leaps and bounds (phrase) – used to say about how something increases or grows or improves very quickly; rapidly, swiftly, considerably, significantly.
  54. shift gear (phrase) – to suddenly change what are doing right now.
  55. comprehensive (adjective) – all-inclusive, broad-based, complete/thorough.
  56. re-imagination (noun) – re-creation/development.
  57. go beyond (phrasal verb) – to go past something, exceed, surpass.
  58. account for (phrasal verb) – constitute, comprise, form, represent.
  59. unravel (verb) – investigate, decode, clarify, explain, elucidate, fathom.
  60. ceiling (noun) – upper limit, maximum, highest permissible level.
  61. pledge (verb) – promise, undertake, give an assurance, vow, swear.
  62. strive (verb) – try, attempt, make every effort.
  63. rationale (noun) – reason, reasoning/thinking, logic, grounds, basis.
  64. phase out (phrasal verb) – eliminate, remove, discontinue, get rid of (something in gradual stages).
  65. aside from (phrase) – apart from.
  66. mitigation (noun) – alleviation, reduction; lessening.
  67. pledge (noun) – promise, undertaking, oath, agreement, assurance.
  68. scope (noun) – opportunity, freedom, latitude, leeway.
  69. renewable energy (noun) – clean energy, green energy; energy generated from natural resources (such as water, wind & solar energy).
  70. stakeholder (noun) – a person with an interest in something.
  71. The Just Transition Commission (noun) – the commission established to provide independent advice to the government on the long-term strategic opportunities and challenges relating to the transition to a net-zero economy.
  72. livelihood (noun) – means of making a living with the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing); means of support, subsistence, source of income.
  73. fall on the back of someone (phrase) – to become a burden for someone.
  74. address (verb) – tackle, deal with, attend to, try to sort out.
  75. entrenched (adjective) – ingrained, established, embedded.
  76. electrification (noun) – making a machine/system work using electricity.
  77. incentive (noun) – stimulus, impetus, boost.
  78. overarching (adjective) – all-inclusive, complete, all-embracing, comprehensive.
  79. envision (verb) – visualize, imagine, envisage.
  80. uptake (noun) – the action of taking up something (available/given).
  81. proactive (adjective) – aggressive, intense.
  82. measure (noun) – action, step, procedure.
  83. household (noun) – family, house.
  84. leverage (verb) – use, make use of, utilize (to maximum gain).
  85. clean (adjective) – green, energy-efficient, energy-saving.
  86. empower (verb) – give the power to, authorize, permit.
  87. insist (on) (verb) – demand forcefully, ask for, press/push for.
  88. complement (verb) – supplement, augment, enhance.
  89. distant (adjective) – faraway, far off, far.
  90. reliant  (adjective) – dependent on.
  91. offset (noun) – counterbalance, counteract.
  92. nimbly (adverb) – actively, briskly, smartly.
  93. ratchet up (phrasal verb) – to increase something by a series of small amounts.
  94. periodically (adverb) – occasionally, from time to time.
  95. Paris Agreement/Accord/Pact (noun) – The Paris Agreement builds upon the Convention (agreement) and for the first time brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do so.
  96. plausible (adjective) – likely, probable, possible; believable, conceivable.
  97. assessment (noun) – evaluation, appraisal, analysis.
  98. geopolitical (adjective) – relating to (the study of) the geographical factors (a country’s position on the earth, size, climate, and natural resources &, etc.) in world politics and inter-state relations.
  99. geo-economic (adjective) – relating to the use of economic interests to promote and defend national interests, and to produce beneficial geopolitical results; relating to the use of economics as an instrument/tool of state power.
  100. strategic (adjective) – relating to achieving long-term or overall goals.
  101. road map (noun) – schedule of a (complex) program.
  102. competence (noun) – capability, ability,  expertise, skill.
  103. supply chain (noun) – a network between a company and its suppliers to produce and distribute a specific product to the final buyer.
  104. credible (adjective) – acceptable, trustworthy, reliable, dependable; believable, plausible, reasonable.
  105. (be) rooted in (verb) – embed, fix, firmly establish, implant.
  106. forward-looking (adjective) – progressive, dynamic, modern, reforming, radical/liberal.
  107. results-oriented (adjective) – used to describe an individual/organization that focuses on outcome/results.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A low-carbon future through sector-led change) – Apr 21, 2021

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