The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021

The judgment of the Delhi High Court granting bail to activists Devangana KalitaNatasha Narwal, and Asif Iqbal Tanha — they have been in jail for over a year (without trial) for their alleged… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021:

  1. pushback (noun) – resistance, opposition, force back, repulse drive.
  2. draconian (adjective) – (of laws or punishments) extremely harsh, severe, strict, stringent, tough.
  3. regime (noun) – system.
  4. ruling (noun) – judgment, adjudication, verdict.
  5. the way forward (phrase) – something (a plan/action) that leads to success in the future.
  6. imperative (noun) – necessary condition, precondition, essential requirement.
  7. bail (noun) – conditional, temporary release of an arrested/imprisoned person when a specified amount of security (such as personal bond or surety) is deposited or pledged (as cash or property) to ensure his/her appearance in court when required.
  8. activist (noun) – a person who supports a political or societal change/cause.
  9. trial (noun) – hearing, inquiry, litigation, judicial proceedings.
  10. alleged (adjective) – supposed, claimed, professed, purported, reported, ostensible.
  11. bring to a close (phrase) – bring to an end, dissolve, finish, conclude.
  12. anathema (noun) – strong curse; someone or something that you strongly dislike/hate/oppose; abhorrence, abomination, detestation, aversion, antipathy.
  13. authoritarian (adjective) – oppressive, draconian, dictatorial, totalitarian.
  14. Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) (noun) – an Indian law aimed at effective prevention of unlawful activities associations in India. Its main objective was to make powers available for dealing with activities directed against the integrity and sovereignty of India.
  15. root (noun) – source, origin, reason.
  16. ostensibly (adverb) – apparently, seemingly, supposedly, allegedly.
  17. check (verb) – halt, stop, restrain, contain, control.
  18. address (verb) – tackle, deal with, attend to, try to sort out.
  19. abused (adjective) – misused, misapplied, misemployed.
  20. lie in (phrasal verb) – be present, be contained, exist.
  21. Section 43D (5) in The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (noun) – It is concentrated on the procedure (a legal bar) for granting bail to a person who is accused of terrorism activities.
  22. perusal (noun) – reading, scrutiny, inspection, study, examination.
  23. Section 173 of the Code Of Criminal Procedure (noun) – It deals with the report of the police officer on completion of investigation against the accused.
  24. Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) (noun) – The Code of Criminal Procedure (in India). The main legislation on procedure for administration of substantive criminal law in India. It was enacted in 1973 and came into force on 1 April 1974. CrPC tells about the criminal trial procedure.
  25. ground (noun) – reason, cause, basis, factor.
  26. accusation (noun) – allegation, charge, indictment.
  27. prima facie (adverb/adjective) – something (first impression) considered as right until proved.
  28. break down (phrasal verb) – tear down, demolish, destroy.
  29. adversarial (adjective) – involving conflict or opposition.
  30. persuade (verb) – convince, persuade, assure, make certain.
  31. at the heart of (phrase) – at the most important part of.
  32. cross-examination (noun) – interrogation, cross-questioning, probing.
  33. scrutinise (verb) – examine carefully, inspect; investigate.
  34. unearth (verb) – expose, bring to light, uncover, find out.
  35. approximation (noun) – estimation, guess, conjecture, surmise.
  36. leave someone or something standing (phrase) – be much better than others.
  37. persuasive (adjective) – convincing, effective, compelling, forceful, powerful, influential.
  38. rigour (noun) – thoroughness, carefulness, attention to detail, diligence, precision, accuracy.
  39. incriminating (adjective) – blaming, accusing, implicating, involving someone in a crime.
  40. the bulk of (noun) – most, larger part, larger number.
  41. creaking (adjective) – weak, struggling.
  42. high-profile (adjective) – prominent, most important, attracting much public attention.
  43. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  44. utmost (adjective) – greatest, maximum, most extreme.
  45. languish (verb) – suffer, experience hardship; be abandoned, be neglected, be forgotten.
  46. undertrial (noun) – a person in custody (for court’s trial).
  47. liberty (noun) – freedom, independence.
  48. circumstances (noun) – situation, condition, context.
  49. take into account (phrase) – consider, take into consideration, have regard to, reckon with.
  50. flight risk (noun) – a person who likely to attempt to escape to another country before his/her trial.
  51. tamper with (verb) – interfere, meddle, distort/alter, manipulate.
  52. gravity (noun) – seriousness, importance/significance, severity. 
  53. offence (noun) – crime, illegal/unlawful act, wrongdoing.
  54. play a part/role (phrase) – contribute to, be instrumental in, be a factor in.
  55. prosecution (noun) – indictment, accusation, charge.
  56. defence (noun) – the act of defending one’s action against the opposition; protection, shielding, safeguarding.
  57. subject to (verb) – put through, undergo, go through.
  58. scholar (noun) – academic, intellectual, expert/pundit, learned person.
  59. point out (phrasal verb) – identify, mention, indicate, draw attention to.
  60. short-circuit (verb) – shorten, reduce, lessen, cut down (a process/activity).
  61. look at (verb) – see, regard, consider; examine, analyse, appraise.
  62. plausibility (noun) – credibility, reliability, believability, soundness.
  63. bind (verb) – constrain, restrict, confine, restrain.
  64. as long as (phrase) – provided that.
  65. unchallenged (adjective) – undisputed, undoubted, unquestioned.
  66. one-sided (adjective) – biased, prejudiced, partisan, discriminatory, unjust.
  67. perversity (noun) – unreasonableness, irrationality, illogicality, inappropriateness.
  68. determination (noun) – a decision about, choice, settlement.
  69. deprive of (verb) – dispossess, strip of, deny, prevent from having.
  70. on end (phrase) – continuously, successively, consecutively. 
  71. polity (noun) – a politically organized society.
  72. rule of law (phrase) – it is described as “a principle of governance in which all persons, institutions and entities, public and private, including the State itself, are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced and independently adjudicated, and which are consistent with international human rights norms and standards.
  73. state of affairs (phrase) – condition, situation, circumstances.
  74. charge sheet (noun) – an official document on which a police officer enters details of the charge against a person.
  75. outlandish (adjective) – strange, peculiar, odd, weird, unusual, bizarre.
  76. trumped-up (adjective) – relating to a wrong or incorrect accusation/allegation.
  77. sound (verb) – appear, look, seem.
  78. convincing (adjective) – persuasive, powerful, potent, strong, irresistible.
  79. interrogate (verb) – cross-question, cross-examine, probe.
  80. in short (phrase) – brieflyin essence.
  81. shoddy (adjective) – poor-quality/inferior, careless, improper.
  82. riddle with (verb) – fill with, spread through, overrun, plague/beset (something undesirable).
  83. contradiction (noun) – a combination of statements opposed to one another.
  84. invariably (adverb) – always, every time, each time.
  85. make out (phrasal verb) – pretend, make a pretence of, affect, allege, claim, assert.
  86. the finer points of (phrase) – (complex) details, niceties, specifics, (detailed) particulars.
  87. bench (noun) – a court of law with a number of judges.
  88. cardinal (adjective) – fundamental, basic, primary, main.
  89. lie upon (phrasal verb) – to be incumbent upon; be obligatory/mandatory upon.
  90. narrowly (adverb) – carefully, closely, scrutinizingly, attentively, meticulously.
  91. plausible (adjective) – likely, probable, possible; believable, conceivable.
  92. throw around (phrasal verb) – (of a word) mention frequently.
  93. provision (noun) – clause, requirement, condition.
  94. hold (verb) – rule, decide.
  95. chakka jam (noun) – (from Hindi) road blockage.
  96. overt (adjective) – clear, apparent, conspicuous, obvious, noticeable.
  97. covert (adjective) – secret, concealed, hidden.
  98. attribute to (verb) – ascribe, assign, connect/associate with.
  99. constitute (verb) – be regarded as, act as; account for, represent.
  100. inference (noun) – conclusion, reasoning, conjecture, speculation, assumption.
  101. hypothetical (adjective) – theoretical, speculative, conjectured, imagined.
  102. count (verb) – matter, be important; consider, think, regard, view as.
  103. (be) couple with (verb) – combine, integrate, connect, incorporate, link.
  104. dissent (verb) – disagree with, fail to agree with, refuse to support, object to, dispute, challenge.
  105. application (noun) – use, applying, utilization.
  106. quest (noun) – pursuit, search.
  107. preclude (verb) – prevent, prohibit, block/exclude.
  108. inconsistent with (adjective) – incompatible with, conflicting with, in conflict with, at odds with, at variance with.
  109. redolent of (adjective) – evocative, suggestive, reminiscent.
  110. tyrannical (adjective) – dictatorial, despotic, autocratic, absolute, totalitarian.
  111. consistent (adjective) – in agreement with, agreeing, in line with, conforming to.
  112. conscientious (adjective) – thorough, dedicated, attentive.
  113. judiciary (noun) – judges.
  114. the judiciary (noun) – a branch of government in which judicial power is vested.
  115. on one’s own terms (phrase) – according to one’s own opinions/views.
  116. interpretation (noun) – explanation, elucidation, clarification, definition, meaning.
  117. at the mercy of (phrase) – under the control of, under the heel of, in the power of, controlled/dominated by.
  118. the state (noun) – government, the administration, the regime, the authorities, the establishment.
  119. endorse (verb) – uphold, support, ratify, approve, justify.
  120. the executive (noun) – the executive is a branch of government that enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary.
  121. executive (adjective) – administrative, decision-making, directorial, controlling.
  122. impunity (noun) – immunity, exemption/freedom from punishment, special treatment.


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2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime) – Jun 18, 2021

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