The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021

India, now home to the world’s worst ongoing coronavirus pandemic, is currently reporting nearly a million new cases and 10,000 deaths every three days,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021:

  1. under-reporting (noun) – an act of reporting less than actual (data).
  2. projection (noun) – forecast, prediction, calculation.
  3. gauge (verb) – judge, assess, evaluate, appraise, analyse.
  4. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  5. coronavirus (CoV) (noun) – a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death. (Courtesy: WHO)
  6. ravage (verb) – devastate, ruin, destroy, wreak havoc on, damage.
  7. likely (adverb) – probably, in all probability, presumably, doubtlessly.
  8. behavioural dynamics (noun) – a field devoted to analytic descriptions of behaviour change.
  9. dynamics (noun) – basic/fundamental cause or force that triggers change within a system.
  10. cumulative (adjective) – total, collective, aggregate.
  11. substantially (adverb) – considerably, significantly, largely.
  12. acute (adjective) – severe, intense, serious.
  13. empirical (adjective) – practical, pragmatic, actual, real.
  14. epidemiological (adjective) – relating to the study and analysis of the distribution, patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
  15. asymptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with no symptoms.
  16. symptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with symptoms.
  17. pre-symptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with mild illness/symptoms.
  18. barrier (noun) – blockade, hurdle, obstacle, impediment, hindrance.
  19. reluctance (noun) – unwillingness, disinclination, hesitation.
  20. stigma (noun) – shame, disgrace, dishonour, discredit; Stigma occurs when society labels someone as disgraced or less desirable. Stigma involves three elements; a lack of knowledge (ignorance), negative attitudes (prejudice) and people behaving in ways that disadvantage the stigmatised person (discrimination).
  21. alike (adjective) – the same, similar, identical.
  22. comorbidity (noun) – the presence of one or more additional conditions (diseases/problems) co-occurring/co-existing with a primary condition (disease/problem).
  23. infrastructure (noun) – the basic physical or organisational structure for something (to function properly).  
  24. epidemic (noun) – a disease that affects a large number of people within a community, population, or region.
  25. hospitalisation (noun) – the act of taking (or) admitting someone to (or) in hospital for treatment.
  26. proportion (noun) –  percentage, segment, share.
  27. end up (phrasal verb) – come/appear, find oneself (to a particular course of action in the end).
  28. surveillance (noun as modifier) – monitoring, observation, scrutiny, inspection.
  29. strategy (noun) – plan of action.
  30. covert (adjective) – secret, concealed, hidden.
  31. account for (phrasal verb) – constitute, comprise, form.
  32. (case) fatality rate/ratio (noun) – in epidemiology, the proportion of people who die from a particular disease compared to all individuals diagnosed with the disease over a certain period of time.
  33. serosurvey (noun) – collection and testing of serum (or proxy such as oral fluid) specimens from a sample of a
    defined population over a specified period of time to estimate the prevalence of antibodies against a given
    specific infectious pathogen as an indicator of immunity.
  34. carry out (phrasal verb) – conduct, perform, execute.
  35. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) (noun) – the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest medical research bodies in the world. As early as in 1911, the Government of India set up the Indian Research Fund Association (IRFA) with the specific objective of sponsoring and coordinating medical research in the country. It was redesignated in 1949 as the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  36. antibody (noun) – immunizer; it is also called ‘immunoglobulin’; a protective protein produced mainly by plasma (blood) cells in the immune system in response to the presence of antigens (disease-causing organisms (bacteria & viruses) and other harmful/toxic foreign substances like insect venom).
  37. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  38. imply (verb) – say indirectly, suggest, indicate.
  39. factor in (phrasal verb) – take into account, take into consideration, consider.
  40. point to (verb) – indicate, suggest, denote.
  41. undeniable (adjective) – unquestionable, undebatable, inarguable.
  42. contingent on (adjective) – dependent, conditional.
  43. legitimacy (noun) – legality, validity, lawfulness.
  44. mortality (noun) – (in a particular time/for a cause) the rate/number of death.
  45. volunteer (noun) – participant.
  46. obituary (noun) – death notice.
  47. surge (noun) – sudden increase or rise of something.
  48. cremation (ground) (noun) – a place where dead people’s bodies are burned, after a funeral ceremony.
  49. burial ground (noun) – a place where dead people’s bodies are buried, after a funeral ceremony.
  50. lethality (noun) – the capacity to cause death/harm/damage.
  51. holistic (adjective) – relating to an integrated approach that takes care of the “whole thing”, instead of certain parts in it.
  52. demographer (noun) – an expert in the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
  53. come up with (phrasal verb) – produce, put forward, present/submit.
  54. difference (noun) – dissimilarity, contrast, deviation, unevenness, variation.
  55. explore (verb) – look into, examine, evaluate, consider, check out.
  56. attribute (verb) – ascribe, assign, connect/associate with.
  57. infeasible (adjective) – impracticable, unworkable, unreasonable.
  58. look at (verb) – see, regard, consider; examine, analyse, appraise.
  59. in terms of (phrase) – with regard to, regarding/concerning, in connection with.
  60. test positivity rate/ratio (TPR) (noun) – the proportion of positives to total tests done for disease; the percentage of tests that are turning out to be positive for disease; the rate at which people getting tested for disease receive positive results; the ratio of cases confirmed to tests performed for disease.
  61. reel (verb) – be shaken by, be stunned by, be shocked by.
  62. skyrocket (verb) – rise, increase, escalate, mount; mushroom, snowball.
  63. throw someone off balance (phrase) – confuse, baffle, mystify, perplex, puzzle.
  64. turn away (phrasal verb) – send away, refuse, repel, reject, rebuff.
  65. forecast (verb) – predict, foresee, estimate, foretell, project.
  66. debatable (adjective) – controversial, contentious, questionable/arguable.
  67. deceased (adjective) – dead, expired, passed away.
  68. unfold (verb) – happen, occur, take place, transpire.
  69. astounding (adjective) – shocking, surprising, breathtaking.
  70. grieve (verb) – mourn, lament, be sad, cry, weep, suffer, be distressed.
  71. staggering (adjective) – astonishing, shocking, surprising.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Under-reporting does hurt the COVID fight) – May 04, 2021

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