The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021

A string of high-profile cyberattacks in recent months has exposed vulnerabilities in the critical infrastructure of even advanced nations. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021.

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This preview is provided here with permission.  

Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021:

  1. hardly (adverb) – barely, almost not.
  2. wire (verb) – connect, attach, (to an electronic device).
  3. cyber resilience (noun) – the ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from cyber attacks.
  4. resilience (noun) – the ability to bounce back quickly from difficulties; strength of character, strength, toughness.
  5. civilian (noun) – non-military person, ordinary citizen.
  6. infrastructure (noun) – the basic physical or organisational structure for something (to function properly).  
  7. cyberattack (noun) – a malicious and deliberate attempt by an individual or organization to breach the information system (computer network) of another individual or organization. an attack on an information or computer network as an “attempt to destroy, expose, alter, disable, steal or gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of anything that has value to the individual/organization.
  8. stretch (verb) – put a strain on, put great demands on, overtax; extent.
  9. string (noun) – succession, chain, sequence, series.
  10. high-profile (adjective) – prominent, most important, attracting much public attention.
  11. expose (verb) – reveal, show, display, exhibit, unveil.
  12. vulnerability (noun) – weakness, defencelessness, unprotectedness, susceptibility.
  13. reinforce (verb) – support, strengthen, fortify, bolster up, underpin.
  14. defence (noun) – protection, shielding, safeguarding; security.
  15. potential (adjective) – possible, likely.
  16. SolarWinds Cyberattack (noun) – The attack involved hackers, believed to be affiliated with the Russian government, who gained access to the US government and other systems through a compromised update to SolarWinds’ Orion software. 
  17. rock (verb) – stun, shock, stagger, surprise.
  18. breach (noun) – contravention, violation, breaking, non-compliance.
  19. wing (noun) – branch.
  20. aggressive (adjective) – assertive, forceful, vigorous, audacious.
  21. exploit (verb) – take advantage of, make use of, utilize, capitalize on, benefit from.
  22. flaw (noun) – defect, fault, imperfection/weakness.
  23. succession (noun) – sequence, series, course, chain, cycle. 
  24. audacious (verb) – impudent, ill-mannered, outrageous.
  25. ransomware (noun) – a type of malicious software cyber criminals use to block you from accessing your own data.
  26. style (verb) – call, name, tag.
  27. shut down (phrasal verb) – cease activity, close down, cease operation.
  28. siege (noun) – blockade.
  29. pay out (phrasal verb) – spend, hand over, give (money).
  30. ransom (noun) – payment demanded to release someone held hostage.  
  31. Bitcoin (noun) – a type of digital currency (cryptocurrency).
  32. seize (verb) – capture, take over, take possession of, conquer.
  33. phishing (noun) – the fraudulent use of electronic communications to deceive and take advantage of users.
  34. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (noun) – Established in 1961, USAID is the first U.S. foreign assistance organization whose primary emphasis was on long-range economic and social development assistance efforts.
  35. subsidiary (noun) – subordinate company.
  36. primarily (adverb) – largely, mainly, mostly.
  37. employ (verb) – use, utilize, make use of.
  38. erect (verb) – create, establish, form/set up.
  39. obsession (noun) – the particular condition of having unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas &, etc., about someone or something (all the time); fixation, preoccupation, concern, mania/craze/phobia.
  40. zero-day vulnerability (noun) – a software vulnerability discovered by attackers before the software developer has become aware of it and finds a fix.  This has the capability to cripple a system and could lie undetected for a long time
  41. cripple (verb) – ruin, destroy, impair, damage.
  42. Stuxnet (noun) – Stuxnet (2010) is a computer worm that was originally aimed at Iran’s nuclear facilities and has since mutated and spread to other industrial and energy-producing facilities. it exploits multiple vulnerabilities in Windows-based computers that provide an interface to industrial control systems (ICS) that run industrial processes.
  43. enrichment (noun) – the method of making more powerful or explosive Uranium by increasing the composition of uranium-235 isotope through the process of isotope separation. (The process of concentrating the U-235).
  44. eventuality (noun) – a possible outcome, possibility.
  45. spear phishing (noun) – a tricky email attack that targets a specific organization or individual, seeking unauthorized access to sensitive information.
  46. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  47. Shamoon (noun) – The Shamoon virus first surfaced (in 2012) at Saudi Aramco, wiping out tens of thousands of computers and replacing the data with a partial image of a burning American flag. 
  48. wipe out (phrasal verb) – eliminate, abolish, remove (completely).
  49. frosty (adjective) – unfriendly, inhospitable/unwelcoming, hostile.
  50. cyber warfare (noun) – the use of technology to attack a nation.
  51. replete with (adjective) – filled with, well supplied/stocked with, overloaded.
  52. manifestation (noun) – display, demonstration, indication, disclosure, expression. 
  53. cat and mouse (game) (phrase) – a contrived/measured action involving constant pursuit, near captures, and repeated escapes.
  54. skyrocket (verb) – rise, increase, escalate, mount; mushroom, snowball.
  55. prominently (adverb) – mainly, greatly, noticeably, evidently, obviously.
  56. of late (phrase) – recently, lately, in recent times.
  57. triple (verb) – increase by three (times).
  58. catastrophic (adjective) – destructive, ruinous, disastrous.
  59. cease (verb) – bring to an end/halt/stop, conclude, terminate.
  60. prone to (adjective) – susceptible, vulnerable, liable; likely to get, likely to have, at risk of.
  61. zero in on (phrase) – focus on, centre on, concentrate on, highlight, spotlight, underline, emphasize.
  62. worrisome (adjective) – worrying, distressing/upsetting, troublesome.
  63. rage (verb) – be at its height, be uncontrollable; reach a high degree of intensity.
  64. vulnerable (adjective) – ill-protected, easily affected by, prone to, at risk of.
  65. compromise (verb) – damage, harm, diminish, reduce, weaken.
  66. aggravate (verb) – increase, intensify, worsen, exacerbate, compound.
  67. respite (noun) – rest, break, interval, intermission, halt.
  68. sophisticated (adjective) – highly developed.
  69. stealing (noun) – theft, robbery, misappropriation.
  70. jeopardy (noun) – danger, peril, risk.
  71. run-of-the-mill (adjective) – ordinary, commonplace, standard, forgettable.
  72. reverse engineering (noun) – a process of recovering the design, requirement specifications and functions of a product from an analysis of its code/part. With reverse engineering, the design engineer starts with the final product and works through the design process in the opposite direction to arrive at the product design specification. 
  73. penetration tester (noun) – cyber-security expert; (penetration test is a security exercise where a cyber-security expert attempts to find and exploit vulnerabilities in a computer system).
  74. landscape (noun) – the distinctive features of a field of activity.
  75. poise (verb) – ready oneself, prepare oneself.
  76. geopolitical (adjective) – relating to (the study of) the geographical factors (a country’s position on the earth, size, climate, and natural resources &, etc.) in world politics and inter-state relations.
  77. insider threat (noun) – a security risk that originates from within the targeted organization.
  78. omnipotent (adjective) – all-powerful, invincible, most high, pre-eminent.
  79. hinge on (verb) – depend on, be based, be dependent.
  80. bound to (adjective) – certain, sure, very likely, guaranteed.
  81. reportedly (adverb) – supposedly, seemingly, apparently, allegedly.
  82. quintillion (cardinal number) – a cardinal number represented by 1 followed by 18 zeroes or just 10 raised to the power of 18 (1018). Cardinal numbers are the numbers that are used for counting something.
  83. petabyte (noun) – a measure of memory or data storage capacity that is equal to 2 to the 50th power of bytes. One petabyte (abbreviated “PB”) is equal to 1,000 terabytes.
  84. thankless (adjective) – unappreciated, unrecognized, unrewarded, unacknowledged.
  85. exposure (noun) – showing, display, disclosure.
  86. cybersecurity (noun) – the protection of internet-connected systems, including hardware, software and data, from cyber attacks.
  87. Zero Trust (noun) – a security framework requiring all users, whether in or outside the organization’s network, to be authenticated, authorized, and continuously validated for security configuration and posture before being granted or keeping access to applications and data.
  88. viz. (adverb) – namely, specifically, in other words.
  89. niche (adjective) – specialized (group).
  90. agile (adjective) – alert, sharp, acute, intelligent.
  91. privileged (adjective) – confidential, private, secret, top secret, restricted.
  92. data masking (noun) – a data security technique in which a dataset is copied but with sensitive data obfuscated (made unclear).
  93. moot (noun) – debatable, doubtful, arguable, disputable, problematic.
  94. ward off (phrasal verb) – prevent, repel, avert, deflect, block, stop, obstruct, impede.
  95. artificial intelligence (AI) (noun) – an area of computer science that deals with giving machines the ability to seem like they have human intelligence (Courtesy: VOA Learning English).
  96. Machine learning (noun) – a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) focused on building applications that learn from data and improve their accuracy over time without being programmed to do so. 
  97. quantum computing (noun) – an area of study focused on the development of computer-based technologies centered around the principles of quantum theory. Quantum computing harnesses the phenomena of quantum mechanics to deliver a huge leap forward in computation to solve certain problems. Classical computers, which include smartphones and laptops, encode information in binary “bits” that can either be 0s or 1s. In a quantum computer, the basic unit of memory is a quantum bit or qubit.
  98. make progress (phrase) – move forward, make strides; proceed, advance, improve.
  99. lag behind (verb) – trail, straggle, fall behind, move slowly.
  100. in the public domain (phrase) – if something (e.g. information) is in the public domain, people generally know about it since it is no secret.
  101. carry out (phrasal verb) – conduct, perform, execute, bring about.
  102. pressing (adjective) – urgent, critical, crucial, important.
  103. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  104. lie in (phrasal verb) – be present, exist.

Note:    

 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The world is hardly wired for cyber resilience) – Jun 14, 2021

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