The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020

The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020

The Third India-U.S. 2+2 Ministerial Dialogue between the Foreign and Defence Ministers of India and the U.S. Secretaries of State and Defence took place in Delhi on October 26-27. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02,2020.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020:

  1. trajectory (noun) – track/course, route, path, direction, approach.
  2. diplomatic (adjective) – (delicate & sensitive) consular, foreign-policy.
  3. architecture (noun) – structure, framework.
  4. build-up (noun) – publicity, promotion, propaganda.
  5. to say the least (phrase) – to put it mildly, putting it mildly, without any exaggeration.
  6. consequential (adjective) – important, significant, major.
  7. strategic (adjective) – relating to achieving long-term or overall military goals.
  8. thousand pound gorilla in the room (phrase) – used to say something is the biggest problem in the relationship between two or more persons or countries.
  9. all-out (adjective) – intense, aggressive, vigorous, powerful.
  10. pose (verb) – raise, ask, put (a question/matter for consideration).
  11. centrepiece (noun) – highlight, main feature, centre of attention, focal point.
  12. Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) for Geo-Spatial cooperation (noun) – BECA agreement will allow India to use US expertise on geospatial intelligence and to enhance military accuracy of automated hardware systems and weapons like cruise, ballistic missiles and drones. This is the third foundational agreement to be signed between India and the US after the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) and the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) in 2016 and 2018 respectively.
  13. mark (verb) – indicate, represent, signify.
  14. entitle (verb) – allow, empower, authorize.
  15. classified (adjective) – private, personal, intimate, privileged.
  16. intelligence (noun) – (military) information.
  17. bilateral (adjective) – involving two groups or countries.
  18. signatory (noun) – the person who signed an official document/agreement.
  19. Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) (noun) – India and the U.S. inked the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) in 2016 that allows their militaries use each other’s bases for repair and replenishment of supplies as well as provide for deeper cooperation.
  20. Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) (noun) – India and the U.S. signed another pact called COMCASA (Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement) in 2018 that provides for interoperability between the two militaries and provides for sale of high end technology from the U.S. to India.
  21. append (verb) – include, add, put in.
  22. weld (verb) – unite, connect, join.
  23. pact (noun) – deal, agreement, settlement.
  24. tie (verb) – link, connect, join.
  25. notwithstanding (adverb) – nevertheless, nonetheless; in spite of, despite, regardless of.
  26. ground (noun) – reason, factor, basis, rationale, foundation.
  27. compromise (verb) – undermine, weaken, lessen.
  28. dispensation (noun) – government.
  29. reason/cause for concern (phrase) – reason to worry.
  30. at a price (phrase) – having unwelcome/unpleasant consequences.
  31. indisputably (adverb) – undeniably, unquestionably, unarguably.
  32. come with a price tag (phrase) – come with a risk.
  33. inconsiderable (adjective) – insignificant, negligible, insubstantial.
  34. provision (noun) – term, clause, requirement/condition.
  35. pride (oneself) (verb) – be proud of, revel in, take satisfaction in, delight in.
  36. strategic autonomy (noun) – the ability of a state (country) to pursue its national interests and adopt its preferred foreign policy without being constrained in any manner by other states.
  37. hollow (adjective) – pointless, empty, valueless.
  38. coalition of the willing (phrase) – a group of nations agreeing to act together, particularly with military involvement. (The term has been particularly associated with those countries giving active support to American intervention in Iraq in 2003).
  39. juncture (noun) – point in time, time/moment, stage.
  40. jettison (verb) – discard, throw out, abandon.
  41. neutrality (noun) – non-alignment, non-participation, non-involvement (in a conflict, disagreement, etc.).
  42. equi-distance (noun) – equal distance.
  43. bloc (noun) – alliance, association, union.
  44. pragmatic (adjective) – empirical, realistic/actual, practical.
  45. in keeping with (phrase) – in accordance with, in agreement with, in line with/true to.
  46. disorder (noun) – unrest, disturbance, turmoil, chaos, mayhem.
  47. ideologically (adverb) – dogmatically, conventionally; in a method which relates to an ideology.
  48. agnostic (adjective) – sceptical, doubting, questioning, cynical, unbelieving.
  49. prevailing (adjective) – existing; current.
  50. circumstances (noun) – situation, background, conditions, state of affairs.
  51. opportunistic (adjective) – selfish, self-centred, self-seeking, egocentric, inward-looking.
  52. fluidity (noun) – unsettled state, unstable state, changeability.
  53. pervasive (adjective) – common, general, widespread, prevalent, ubiquitous, omnipresent.
  54. address (verb) – deal with, handle, tackle, grapple with.
  55. forge (verb) – form, create, establish, set up.
  56. contemporary (adjective) – modern, present-day.
  57. account (noun) – narration, narrative, description, portrayal.
  58. trigger (verb) – cause, bring about, generate, give rise to.
  59. flurry (noun) – spate, series, succession.
  60. quagmire (noun) – unfortunate situation, muddle, mix-up.
  61. for instance (phrase) – as an example.
  62. distance oneself from (phrasal verb) – denounce, disown, reject, condemn, disagree with.
  63. The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD)/The Quad (noun) – an informal strategic forum between the United States, Japan, Australia and India that aims to strengthen the defence and security cooperation amongst these four countries. It was initially proposed by former Japan PM Abe in order to check China’s growing influence and assertiveness in the Indo-Pacific region.
  64. on account of (phrase) – because of, owing to, due to, by virtue of.
  65. connotation (noun) – meaning, understanding, reading, explanation.
  66. bias (noun) – prejudice, partiality; unfairness, one-sidedness.
  67. orientation (noun) – attitude, inclination, direction, intention.
  68. pursue (verb) – engage in, conduct, follow.
  69. pay a premium for/put a premium on (phrase) – value greatly, put a high value on, regard as particularly important.
  70. virtue (noun) – advantage, benefit, usefulness.
  71. discourse (noun) – discussion, conversation, conference, talk.
  72. gravitate (verb) – move towards, be attracted to.
  73. area/sphere of influence (phrase) – domain, province, territory (under someone’s authority/power/influence).
  74. check (verb) – restrain, contain, control.
  75. exacerbate (verb) – intensify, increase, heighten, aggravate, worsen.
  76. deteriorate (verb) – decline, degenerate, degrade.
  77. dividend (noun) – benefit, advantage, gain.
  78. pay dividends (phrase) – to cause  good results; to bring advantage.
  79. pay attention (phrase) – heed, attend, be attentive, concentrate on.
  80. offset (verb) – even up, counterbalance, equalize, neutralize; make amends for, compensate for.
  81. neighbourhood (noun) – (surrounding) area, region, district/country.
  82. out of step (phrase) – at variance, in disagreement, out of line, at loggerheads, in opposition.
  83. make inroads into (phrase) – progress/advance into (a new area/territory).
  84. counter (verb) – oppose, resist, tackle, confront.
  85. expansionism (noun) – the policy of territorial expansion.
  86. complacent (adjective) – careless, casual, unconcerned, uninterested, apathetic, perfunctory; smug, self-satisfied, pleased/proud of oneself, self-opinionated, satisfied, pleased, contented.
  87. deft (adjective) – skillful, proficient, finely judged, delicate.
  88. linkage (noun) – connection, relationship, association.
  89. adversely (adverb) – unfavourably, disadvantageously, badly.
  90. content (adjective) – contented, satisfied, pleased.
  91. furthermore (adverb) – moreover, additionally, besides.
  92. devote (verb) – allocate, assign, allot, commit.
  93. fray (verb) – strain, irritate, put on edge, make tense.
  94. Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) (noun) – the NAM was set up after the World War 2 with an aim to “create an independent path in world politics that would not result in member States becoming pawns in the struggles between the major power blocs (Western/Capitalist bloc aligned with the USA or Eastern/Soviet bloc aligned with the former Soviet Union).
  95. play a part/role (phrase) – contribute to, be instrumental in, be a factor in.
  96. suck into (verb) – implicate in, involve in, draw into.
  97. subscribe to (verb) – agree with, be in agreement with, support/endorse.
  98. supportive (adjective) – encouraging, understanding, concerned, in favour.
  99. Northern Alliance (noun) – it is also known as the United Islamic Front for Salvation of Afghanistan (UIFSA), was a coalition of militias seeking to topple the rule of the Taliban throughout Afghanistan.
  100. imperative (noun) – necessary condition, precondition, essential requirement.
  101. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  102. shore up (phrasal verb) – support, assist, prop up.
  103. square the circle (phrase) – to do something impossible/difficult.
  104. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) (noun) – The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai (China). The SCO currently comprises eight Member States (China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) and is seen as a counterweight to NATO. It was  established as a multilateral association to ensure security and maintain stability across the vast Eurasian region, join forces to counteract emerging challenges and threats, and enhance trade, as well as cultural and humanitarian cooperation.
  105. reconcile (verb) – settle, resolve, patch up.
  106. fondness (noun) – affection, care, liking, inclination, penchant.
  107. protagonist (noun) – supporter, advocate/champion, proponent.
  108. conceive (verb) – think up, devise, come up with, formulate.
  109. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (noun) – NATO was created in 1949 by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.
  110. detached (adjective) – impersonal, open-minded, neutral, unbiased, impartial, non-partisan, just, equitable.
  111. outlook (noun) – viewpoint, opinion, perspective.
  112. vis-a-vis (preposition) – in relation to, with regard to.
  113. prescription (noun) – (authoritative) recommendation, instruction, order, direction.
  114. aggravate (verb) – compound, worsen, exacerbate, escalate.
  115. alliance (noun) – coalition, partnership.
  116. rude awakening (noun) – shock, surprise, wake-up call, eye opener, a severe disillusionment/disenchantment/disappointment.
  117. stellar (adjective) – exceptional, extraordinary, outstanding.
  118. staple (adjective) – main or important, major, primary.
  119. admittedly (adverb) – actually, truly/verily, indeed.
  120. robust (adjective) – strong, powerful.
  121. edifice (noun) – a (complex) system/structure.
  122. sustain (verb) – continue, carry on, keep going, keep alive, keep in existence.
  123. optimum (adjective) – most appropriate, ideal, perfect.
  124. embrace (noun) – hold, grip, control.
  125. count on (phrasal verb) – rely on, depend on.
  126. ally (noun) – associate, confederate, partner, supporter.
  127. congruence (noun) – compatibility, agreement, harmony.
  128. dexterity (noun) – capability, ability, efficiency.
  129. deteriorate (verb) – decline, degenerate, degrade.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020:

The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (The shifting trajectory of India’s foreign policy) – Nov 02, 2020

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