The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021

On June 15 last year, the Line of Actual Control (LAC) witnessed its first deaths after 1975 when 20 Indian soldiers and at least four soldiers of China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) died in a violent clash in Galwan in Ladakh. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021:

  1. in a different league (phrase) – to be much better; to be superior (to others).
  2. Line of Actual Control (LAC) (noun) – the de-facto (effective) border between India and China. The LAC is a 4,057-km border running through three areas-Western (Ladakh, Ladakh (Kashmir)), middle (Uttarakhand, Himachal), and eastern (Sikkim, Arunachal).
  3. People’s Liberation Army (PLA) (noun) – People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the country of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is one of the largest military forces in the world.
  4. captive (adjective) – detained, confined, taken prisoner, imprisoned, jailed.
  5. gallantry (noun) – bravery, braveness, courage, courageousness, valour.
  6. gallantry award (noun) – It is awarded for displaying conspicuous gallantry, courage and devotion to duty of very high order in the presence of the enemy. Recognition of bravery has always been a very prestigious affair. Independent India saw the introduction of awards such as ParamVir Chakra, MahaVir Chakra, Vir Chakra, Ashok Chakra, Kirti Chakra, Shaurya Chakra & Sena Medal.
  7. fallen (adjective) – (of a soldier) killed in clash/fight/battle. 
  8. make public (phrase) – announce, communicate, make known, disseminate.
  9. in keeping with (phrase) – in accordance with, in agreement with, in line with, in conformity with.
  10. briefing (noun) – press conference.
  11. monologue (noun) – speech, address, lecture (by one person).
  12. excuse (noun) – pretext, ostensible reason, cover-up.
  13. operational security (OPSEC) (noun) – a process that deployed to prevent sensitive information from getting into the enemy/wrong hands.
  14. embarrassment (noun) – shame, humiliation, indignity, ignominy, loss of pride, loss of face.
  15. address (verb) – talk to, speak to, give a discourse to.
  16. unequivocally (adverb) – clearly, well definedly; unambiguously, categorically, unmistakably.
  17. stated (adjective) – specified, clearly identified.
  18. intrude (verb) – encroach, impinge, trespass, infringe.
  19. post (noun) – (of the armed forces) camp, base, station.
  20. outcry (noun) – uproar, clamour, protest.
  21. rhetoric (noun) – the art of speaking or writing effectively & persuasively or impressively (but, often lacking substance); bombast, loftiness, hyperbole/extravagant language.
  22. dodge (verb) – avoid, evade, shun, bypass, sidestep, circumvent.
  23. digression (noun) – deviation, diversion, departure.
  24. costly (adverb) – awful, terrible, damaging, disastrous.
  25. hitherto (adverb) – previously, earlier, so far/thus far, until now.
  26. C-Voter (noun) – Centre for Voting Opinion & Trends in Election Research, or C-Voter, is an Indian international polling agency headquartered in Delhi, India.
  27. respondent (noun) – a person who replies to something (questionnaire, etc,).
  28. encroachment (noun) – intrusion into, trespass on, invasion of. 
  29. erupt (verb) – break out, flare up, blow up, boil over, start suddenly
  30. summit (noun) – meeting, conference, conclave (international meeting/conference of heads of state/government).
  31. attribute (verb) – assign/ascribe; connect/associate with.
  32. prowess (noun) – courage, bravery, valour; expertise, mastery, skilfulness.
  33. persona (noun) – image, character, personality.
  34. rebuttal (noun) – negation, denial, disproving.
  35. incursion (noun) – intrusion, trespass, infiltration, obtrusion.
  36. solely (adverb) – only, totally.
  37. hold someone responsible/accountable for (phrase) – blame someone for something.
  38. setback (noun) – problem, difficulty, issue.
  39. precarious (adjective) – risky, dangerous, unsafe; hazardous, perilous, unreliable.
  40. deployment (noun) – the bringing of resources into effective action.
  41. hold the line (phrase) – to keep a situation from getting worse; to firmly maintain one’s position/viewpoint under pressure and not surrender to it; keep up, hang on, hold on.
  42. ingress (noun) – entry, access, means of entry, admission.
  43. hot springs (noun) – Hot Springs (Kyam) is the location of an Indian border checkpost operated by Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) in the Chang Chenmo River valley in Ladakh near the disputed border with China. It is so named because there is a hot spring at this location. (hot spring is generally a spring (well head) with water at temperatures substantially higher than the air temperature of the surrounding region).
  44. tactical (adjective) – calculated, strategic, diplomatic.
  45. jolt (verb) – surprise, shock, stun. 
  46. plain (noun) – a large area of flat land.
  47. Depsang plains (noun) – The Depsang plains lie south of DBO (Daulat Beg Oldie post) in a strategic area that the military calls Sub-Sector North (SSN). DBO is the country’s northernmost outpost where India operates an advanced landing ground to support its forward military deployments. The Depsang Plains are large plains that are suitable for driving armoured carriers, artillery and mechanised units, which is unusual at the height of about 17,000 feet above sea level. The Depsang plains are strategically important as it provides a flat surface amid the mountainous terrain which can be used by either of the two countries to launch a military offensive, similar to the Spanggur Gap in the Chushul sub-sector.
  48. palm off (phrasal verb) – get rid of, dispose of something (by misrepresentation);  
  49. legacy (noun as modifier) – something received from a predecessor or from the past; something that is given from one person to another.
  50. contrary (adjective) – opposite, conflicting.
  51. in any case (phrase) – whatever happens; moreover.
  52. disengagement (noun) – withdrawal, departure, retreat (of military troops from an area of conflict).
  53. misadventure (noun) – mishap, misfortune; problem/difficulty, setback.
  54. reorientation (noun) – the act of changing the focus/direction.
  55. articulate (verb) – announce, express, pronounce, point out.
  56. expose (verb) – reveal, show, display, exhibit, unveil.
  57. collusive (adjective) – conspiratorial, underhand, undercover, covert, clandestine, undisclosed.
  58. eventuality (noun) – a possible outcome, possibility.
  59. backchannel (noun) – a secondary or secret route.
  60. reiteration (noun) – the process of repeating something (some action) for clarity/emphasis.
  61. ceasefire (noun) – a negotiated agreement that will be accompanied by other associated commitments to de-escalate the fighting; a temporary stoppage of war, truce, armistice.
  62. Line of Control (LoC) (noun) – it is a 450 mile-long military control line lying between India and Pakistan’s controlled parts of the former (under the British) Jammu and Kashmir. This line is not actually a legally recognized international boundary but prevails as per de facto. After the Simla Agreement signed in July 1972, this line was officially renamed as “Line of Control” from “the Cease-fire Line”.
  63. rebalance (verb) – balance again; restore something.
  64. relook (verb) – reconsider, rethink, re-examine.
  65. speak of (phrasal verb) – mention, talk about, discuss, refer to.
  66. intelligence (noun) – (of a person) employed in the collection of (military/political) information.
  67. logistics (noun) – the process of planning & executing a complex operation; organization, planning, management, arrangement.
  68. Multi Domain Operations (MDO) (noun) – Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) describes how the U.S. Army, as part of the joint force [Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines] can counter and defeat a near-peer adversary capable of contesting the U.S. in all domains [air, land, maritime, space, and cyberspace] in both competition and armed conflict. The concept describes how U.S. ground forces, as part of the joint and multinational team, deter adversaries and defeat highly capable near-peer enemies in the 2025-2050 timeframe.
  69. doctrine (noun) – principle, command, directive, rule.
  70. wage (verb) – engage in, carry on, conduct, pursue, undertake (a war).
  71. acknowledge (verb) – admit, accept, recognize, realize.
  72. Quad/Quadrilateral (noun) – The ‘Quadrilateral’ is described as four democracies (the United States, Japan, Australia and India) with a shared objective to ensure and support a “free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region.
  73. moot (noun) – debatable, doubtful, arguable, disputable, problematic.
  74. reportedly (adverb) – supposedly, seemingly, apparently, allegedly.
  75. patrol (verb) – keep guard, keep watch, keep a vigil on.
  76. patrol (noun) – vigil, guard, watch, monitoring.
  77. ally (noun) – a country that has a strategic partnership with another country.
  78. modernisation (noun) – improvement, refurbishment, remodeling, revamping.
  79. impinge on (verb) – influence, have an effect on.
  80. maritime (adjective) – of or related to the sea.
  81. The Indo-Pacific (region) (noun) – the Indo-Pacific region refers to the confluence (convergence) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, which interconnect in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and more).
  82. balancing act (noun) – an activity that calls for a delicate balance between different conditions/circumstances.
  83. counter (verb) – combat, confront, stand up to, put up a fight against, oppose, resist.
  84. burgeoning (adjective) – growing, increasing expanding, mushrooming rapidly.
  85. influence (noun) – power, authority, sway, control, leverage, weight.
  86. neighbourhood (noun) – (surrounding) area, region, country.
  87. falter (verb) – hesitate, delay, be undecided, be irresolute.
  88. exacerbate (verb) – intensify, increase, heighten, aggravate, worsen, compound.
  89. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  90. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  91. widening (adjective) – increasing.
  92. power gap (noun) – gap between two countries in possession of control, authority or influence over other countries.
  93. geopolitical (adjective) – relating to (the study of) the geographical factors (a country’s position on the earth, size, climate, and natural resources &, etc.) in world politics and inter-state relations.
  94. reluctant (adjective) – unwilling, disinclined, unenthusiastic.
  95. underplay (verb) – downplay, understate, de-emphasize.
  96. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  97. normalcy (noun) – a normal condition; normality, regularity.
  98. restoration (noun) – reinstitution, re-establishment, reinstallation.
  99. status quo ante (phrase) – a Latin phrase meaning “the state of affairs existing before” (or) “the way things were before”.
  100. unappetizing (adjective) – unappealing, unpleasant, disagreeable, unattractive, uninteresting, dull.
  101. premise (noun) – proposition, assumption, belief, thought.
  102. diplomat (noun) – ambassador, envoy, emissary, consul.
  103. full-blown (adjective) – fully developed, full-scale, full-blooded, fully-fledged, complete, thorough.
  104. lay to rest (phrase) – to end something.
  105. deterrence (noun) – the act of deterring/stopping someone from doing something.
  106. mirage (noun) – an unrealistic hope/wish; misconception/delusion.
  107. engagement (noun) – participation, taking part, involvement.
  108. bouquet (noun) – bunch. 
  109. reset (noun) – re-establishment.
  110. bilateral (adjective) – involving two groups or countries.
  111. ties (noun) – association, relationship; bond, connection.
  112. à la (preposition) – in the manner of.
  113. take the side of (phrase) – support, back, stand by, favour, prefer.
  114. cold war (noun) – a state of political and military tension between two countries, especially superpowers (i.e. the U.S. and China).
  115. the Cold War (noun) – The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States and a group of countries) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and a group of countries).
  116. strategic (adjective) – relating to achieving long-term or overall goals.
  117. sovereignty (noun) – authority, supreme power, control, hegemony, domination.
  118. rule out (phrasal verb) – eliminate, reject, dismiss, disregard, prohibit, prevent.
  119. daunting (adjective) – challenging, taxing, exacting.
  120. to the fore (phrase) – predominant, most important, dominant, major/main (position).
  121. at a crossroads (phrase) – at a situation when an important decision ought to be made.
  122. geopolitics (noun) – the study of the geographical factors (a country’s position on the earth, size, climate, and natural resources & etc,.) in world politics and inter-state relations.

Note:    

 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The road from Galwan, a year later) – Jun 15, 2021

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