The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021

The publication of science writer, editor, and author Nicholas Wade’s well-researched article in the Bulletin of the Atomic ScientistsThe origin of COVID: Did people or nature open Pandora’s box at Wuhan?, has set alarm bells… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021:

  1. red flag (noun) – warning, caution, alarm bells.
  2. trail (noun) – path, course, track, route.
  3. scrutiny (noun) – examination, inspection, investigation.
  4. smoking gun (phrase) – an unquestionable/conclusive evidence that proves that someone has done a crime/wrongdoing.
  5. bulletin (noun) – report, release, statement, announcement.
  6. Pandora (proper noun) – In Greek mythology, the first woman.
  7. Pandora’s box (noun) – (figuratively) a source of something (problems, troubles, difficulties, etc.).
  8. set alarm bells ringing (phrase) – make someone feel worried about something.
  9. collusive (adjective) – conspiratorial, underhand, undercover, covert, clandestine, undisclosed.
  10. cover up (noun) – whitewash, concealment, deception, suppression.
  11. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  12. virology (noun) – the study of viruses and viral diseases.
  13. lay out (phrasal verb) – set out,  work out, arrange, outline, formulate.
  14. narrative (noun) – a representation of a particular situation; portrayal/account.
  15. concur (verb) – agree, be in agreement, accord, see eye to eye.
  16. embrace (verb) – support, be in favour of, back, espouse.
  17. unimaginable (adjective) – unthinkable, inconceivable, unbelievable.
  18. proposition (noun) – theory, concept, premise, idea, assumption.
  19. discredit (verb) – disprove, prove false/wrong, invalidate, refute, reject, challenge, dispute.
  20. conspiracy theory (noun) – an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy by sinister (criminal/menacing) and powerful groups, often political in motivation.
  21. espouse (verb) – support, champion, endorse, advocate, approve.
  22. genetically (adverb) – relating to genetics.
  23. engineer (verb) – alter (an organism) by manipulating its genetic material.
  24. pathogen (noun) – bacteria/virus that causes disease.
  25. lethal (adjective) – destructive, harmful, fatal, deadly, life-threatening. 
  26. mortality (noun) – (in a particular time/for a cause) the rate/number of death.
  27. ethnic (adjective) – relating to a population subgroup (cultural, national, traditional/folk) with a common national or cultural tradition.
  28. specificity (noun) – particularity, distinctiveness, individuality, singularity, specialty.
  29. synthesise (verb) – integrate, incorporate, put/join together, merge, intermix.
  30. organism (noun) – living thing.
  31. antidote (noun) – remedy, countermeasure, cure, solution.
  32. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  33. grant (noun) – allowance, subsidy, endowment, allotment.
  34. coronavirus (CoV) (noun) – a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. (Courtesy: WHO)
  35. humanized mice (noun) – mice engrafted (transplanted) with functional human cells or tissues.
  36. untreatable (adjective) – fatal, lethal, mortal, life-threatening.
  37. carry out (phrasal verb) – conduct, perform, implement, execute, bring about.
  38. novel (adjective) – new, unusual, different, unfamiliar.
  39. life-threatening (adjective) – fatal, deadly, mortal, incurable.
  40. Biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) (noun) – the highest level of biosafety precautions, and is appropriate for work with agents that could easily be aerosol-transmitted within the laboratory and cause severe to fatal disease in humans for which there are no available vaccines or treatments.
  41. deficient (adjective) – lacking, inadequate, insufficient, poor.
  42. flag (verb) – indicate, identify, point out.
  43. remedial (adjective) – corrective, restorative, reparative.
  44. intelligence (noun) – (of a person) employed in the collection of military/political information.
  45. besides (preposition/linking adverb) – in addition to, as well, apart from.
  46. admittedly (adverb) – actually, truly/verily, indeed.
  47. distinguish (verb) – differentiate, separate, set apart, make different.
  48. deliberate (adjective) – intentional, planned, conscious, purposeful.
  49. lingering (adjective) – remaining, nagging, persisting, abiding.
  50. suspicion (noun) – misgiving, doubt/qualm, distrust, scepticism.
  51. outbreak (noun) – outburst, flaring up, breakout, sudden appearance/occurrence of something.
  52. cover up (phrasal verb) – conceal, hide, keep secret, suppress, glossover.
  53. impede (verb) – hinder, obstruct, hamper, disrupt.
  54. vilify (verb) – censure, insult, disparage, criticize, speak evil of.
  55. social order (noun) – it refers to a stable state of society in which the existing social structure is accepted and maintained by its members.
  56. as a result (phrase) – subsequently, therefore, thus.
  57. exonerate (verb) – free/clear from a criminal charge, acquit, declare innocent.
  58. reprimand (verb) – rebuke, reproof, admonishment, reproach, reproval, criticism, censure.
  59. apology (noun) – expression of regret.
  60. denounce (verb) – condemn, criticize, attack, censure, vilify, discredit.
  61. vehement (adjective) – forceful, passionate, or intense.
  62. suppress (verb) – control, contain, restrain, hide. conceal, cover up.
  63. get out (phrasal verb) – emerge, transpire, become known.
  64. reluctance (noun) – unwillingness, disinclination, hesitation.
  65. fuel (verb) – intensify, fortify, support, vitalize.
  66. findings (noun) – conclusion, result; decision, verdict.
  67. dismiss (verb) – reject, deny, spurn, disregard, brush off, shrug off. 
  68. unlikely (adjective) – improbable, not likely, doubtful, dubious, unexpected.
  69. lay to rest (phrase) – to end something.
  70. subsequently (adverb) – eventually, afterwards, later on, in due course.
  71. hypotheses (noun) – reason, basis, thinking.
  72. on the table (phrase) – provided for consideration, discussion.
  73. non-definitive (adjective) – non-conclusive.
  74. taint (verb) – tarnish, damage, spoil, ruin, vitiate.
  75. partisan (noun) – supporter, follower, adherent, champion, backer.
  76. stake (noun) – involvement, concern; risk.
  77. occurrence (noun) – appearance, existence; incidence, prevalence.
  78. stake (noun) – share, interest, involvement, concern (in a situation/system).
  79. virologist (noun) – a specialist in virology (the study of viruses and viral diseases).
  80. zoonotic (adjective) – used to refer to a disease transmitted from (vertebrate) animals to humans”. Zoonosis (noun) is a disease transmitted from (vertebrate) animals to humans. It is based on the Greek words for “(zoo) animal” and “(nosos) sickness.
  81. akin (adjective) – similar, related, equivalent.
  82. suspect (adjective) – suspicious, dubious, untrustworthy; questionable, doubtful.
  83. bring close (phrase) – bring to an end, dissolve, finish, conclude.
  84. result in (phrasal verb) – cause, bring on, bring about, call forth, give rise to.
  85. scant (adjective) – little, little or no, minimal, hardly any.
  86. compromise (verb) – undermine, weaken, be detrimental to, damage.
  87. credible (adjective) – acceptable, trustworthy, reliable, dependable; believable, plausible, reasonable.
  88. forensic (adjective) – relating to the application of scientific knowledge & methods to legal problems and legal proceedings.
  89. determination (noun) – a decision about, settlement.
  90. necessarily (adverb) – inevitably, certainly, surely.
  91. circumstantial (adjective) – indirect, inconclusive, unprovable; full, comprehensive, thorough.
  92. plausible (adjective) – likely, probable, possible; believable, conceivable.
  93. negligent (adjective) – careless, remiss, neglectful, lax, irresponsible, inattentive, heedless.
  94. wilful (adjective) – deliberate, intentional, purposeful.
  95. bioengineering (noun) – genetic engineering.
  96. variant (noun) – different or form or version or mutant of something (virus).
  97. Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) (noun) – Formally known as “The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction”, the Convention was negotiated by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament in Geneva, Switzerland. It opened for signature on 10 April 1972 and entered into force on 26 March 1975. The BWC supplements the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which had prohibited only the use of biological weapons.
  98. convention (noun) – agreement, accord, protocol.
  99. stockpiling (noun) – accumulation, collection, store, stock.
  100. compliance (noun) – conformity, observance, observation, accordance, adherence.
  101. mechanism (noun) – structure, system, procedure/method.
  102. penalise (verb) – punish, discipline, mete out punishment to, sentence.
  103. infringement (noun) – violation, transgression, breach.
  104. provision (noun) – clause, requirement, condition.
  105. shortcoming (noun) – fault, flaw, imperfection/defect.
  106. address (verb) – tackle, deal with, attend to, try to sort out.
  107. breach (noun) – contravention, violation, breaking, non-observance.
  108. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (noun) – The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the national public health agency of the United States. It is a United States federal agency, under the Department of Health and Human Services, and is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. CDC is the U.S’s leading science-based, data-driven, service organization that protects the public’s health.
  109. repository (noun) – a store or storing place in which a particular quality may be found.
  110. spore (noun) – embryo, bud, nucleus, seed, egg.
  111. persistent (adjective) – continuous, constant, unending, unrelenting, unceasing.
  112. disseminate (verb) – spread, circulate, distribute, publicize, communicate, make known.
  113. devastating (adjective) – harmful, damaging; destructive, ruinous, disastrous, catastrophic.
  114. run amok (phrase) – get out of control, go berserk, rampage.
  115. restraint (noun) – self-control, self-restraint, constraint, control, restriction, limitation.
  116. code of conduct (noun) – a set of rules outlining the norms, rules, and responsibilities or proper practices of an individual party or an organisation.
  117. bereft of (adjective) – deprived of/stripped of; lacking, deficient in; wanting, in need of.
  118. humankind (noun) – humanity, the human race, people.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (The red flags on the trail of the virus) – Jun 07, 2021

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