The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021

The Supreme Court of India in the last five years during the tenure of the last four Chief Justices of India (CJIs), has seen an unprecedented fall — from being an independent custodian of justice,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021:

  1. chequered (adjective) – varied, mixed, eventful.
  2. legacy (noun) – something received from a predecessor or from the past.
  3. turn the page (phrase) – to make a fresh start after a period of difficulties.
  4. tenure (noun) – term, time, period (in/of office).
  5. outgoing (adjective) – departing, leaving.
  6. beacon (noun) – guiding light; a source of inspiration.
  7. unprecedented (adjective) – not done or experienced before.
  8. fall (noun) – decline, decrease, deterioration.
  9. custodian (noun) – protector, defender, guardian.
  10. instrumentality (noun) – agency, channel, forum.
  11. oversee (verb) – judge, adjudicate, rule.
  12. successor (noun) – inheritor, next-in-line, descendant.
  13. abyss (noun) – a catastrophic/disastrous/awful situation.
  14. the executive (noun) – the executive is a branch of government that enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary.
  15. expose (verb) – reveal, uncover, display, exhibit, disclose, manifest, unveil.
  16. malaise (noun) – trouble, uneasiness, unhappiness, depression.
  17. dispensation (noun) – distribution, giving out; providing.
  18. bench (noun) – a court of law with a number of judges.
  19. preside over (verb) – be in charge of, be responsible for, handle, manage/organize.
  20. liberty (noun) – freedom, independence.
  21. civil liberty (noun) – freedoms guaranteed to us by the Constitution to protect us from the government.
  22. livelihood (noun) – means of making a living with the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing); means of support, subsistence, source of income.
  23. the marginalised (noun) – people who are treated as insignificant, treated as unimportant, neglected.
  24. unconstitutional (adjective) – undemocratic, autocratic, dictatorial, totalitarian.
  25. keep something in check (phrase) – control, curb, restrain, hold back, keep under control.
  26. momentous (adjective) – significant, important, serious, crucial/critical.
  27. dilution (noun) – reduction in value/power/force of something.
  28. Article 370 of Indian Constitution (noun) – It had “temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir” which gave special powers to the state. The article allowed the state a certain amount of autonomy – its own constitution, a separate flag and freedom to make laws. Foreign affairs, defence and communications remained the preserve (domain) of the central government. It also allowed Jammu and Kashmir to make its own rules relating to permanent residency, ownership of property and fundamental rights. It did also bar Indians from outside the state from purchasing property or settling there.
  29. Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) (noun) – The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 seeks to grant citizenship to religious minorities of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, who had to flee their homeland facing persecution. The six minority groups that have been specifically identified are Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Buddhists, Christians, and Parsis.
  30. lead to (verb) – result in, cause, bring on, give rise to.
  31. spate (noun) – series, flurry; a large number of something (taking place at the same period).
  32. constitutionality (noun) – the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution.
  33. spark (verb) – cause, lead to, prompt, give rise to, initiate.
  34. confrontation (noun) – clash, conflict, encounter.
  35. beat up (phrasal verb) – assault, attack, thrash.
  36. gaze (noun) – a long, steady look at somebody/something.
  37. engineered (adjective) – orchestrated, choreographed, masteminded, coordinated.
  38. subsequent (adjective) – following, ensuing, successive.
  39. hound (verb) – harass, persecute, pester, bother, trouble, annoy.
  40. activist (noun) – a person who supports a political or societal change/cause.
  41. in the guise of (phrase) – in the general external appearance of.
  42. electoral bond (noun) – an electoral bond is designed to be a bearer instrument like a Promissory Note — in effect, it will be similar to a banknote that is payable to the bearer on demand and free of interest. It can be purchased by any citizen of India or a body incorporated in India. it allows limitless, secret donations to political parties, including (and especially) by corporations.
  43. refugee (noun) – displaced person, asylum seeker, exile, deportee, stateless person, émigré.
  44. overtake (verb) – come upon, fall on, overwhelm, overpower.
  45. lockdown (noun) – an emergency protocol implemented by the authorities that prevents people from leaving from a place; An extended state of confinement/encirclement/isolation of a person by the authority.
  46. exodus (noun) – mass departure, evacuation, leaving/exit.
  47. migrant (noun) – a person who moves from one region to another – either within a country or across national borders in order to find work or better living conditions.
  48. constitutional court (noun) – The Supreme Court of India is the supreme judicial body of India and the highest court of India under the constitution. It is the most senior constitutional court, and has the power of judicial review.
  49. rise to the challenges (phrase) – tackle a difficult situation successfully.
  50. challenging (adjective) – demanding, testing, taxing.
  51. mettle (noun) – spirit, strength of character, nerve/determination.
  52. Master of the Roster (noun) – it refers to the privilege (right) of the Chief Justice to constitute Benches to hear cases. In November, 2017, when a Constitution Bench, led by the Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra, declared that “the Chief Justice is the master of the roster and he alone has the prerogative (privilege/right) to constitute the Benches of the Court and allocate cases to the Benches so constituted. roster (noun) – a list of the people of a team/organisation. 
  53. set the tone (phrase) – to establish the mood/feeling of something.
  54. cataclysmic (adjective) – disastrous, catastrophic, devastating, destructive.
  55. unheard (adjective) – not listened to.
  56. have a bearing on (phrase) – have a relevance/relation to something.
  57. eventually (adverb) – in the end, finally, at last.
  58. ground (noun) – reason, cause, basis, factor.
  59. detention (noun) – imprisonment, confinement/incarceration, captivity, custody.
  60. deportation (noun) – expulsion, banishment, exile, extradition, expatriation, repatriation.
  61. dispose of (verb) – get rid of, do away with, discard/abandon.
  62. disregard (noun) – negligence, indifference, non-observance, inattention.
  63. norms (noun) – standard, convention, guidelines, criterion.
  64. flee (verb) – run away from, leave abruptly/hastily, escape from.
  65. genocide (noun) – mass murder, massacre, racial killing.
  66. stewardship (noun) – it is a set of principles that forms the responsible planning and management of resources. Stewardship can be applied to the environment and nature, health, technology, economics and etc.
  67. result in (phrasal verb) – cause, bring on, bring about, call forth, give rise to.
  68. reel under (phrase) – to suffer (due to a burden).
  69. backlog (noun) – accumulation, logjam, pile-up/excess.
  70. pendency (noun) – something pending; something remaining undecided.
  71. habeas corpus (noun) – Latin phrase meaning literally “that you have the body”. The court order to bring the person (in custody/detention) to the court to decide on the imprisonment is legal or illegal.
  72. summarily (adverb) – immediately, instantly, straight away.
  73. relegate (verb) – downgrade, lower, move down.
  74. petitioner (noun) – supplicant, pleader, applicant, claimant.
  75. in terms of (phrase) – with regard to, regarding/concerning, in connection with.
  76. plea (noun) – appeal, petition.
  77. on behalf of (phrase) – in the interests of, in support of, for the benefit of.
  78. supplant (verb) – replace, displace, supersede, take the place of, take over from.
  79. wisdom (noun) – understanding, common sense, insight/foresight, judgement/discernment.
  80. infamously (adverb) – ill-famedly, notoriously, disreputably.
  81. exaggeration (noun) – overstatement, overemphasis, overplaying, magnification, amplification.
  82. inhumanity (noun) – mercilessness, ruthlessness, heartlessness; uncaringness, lack of compassion, lack of feeling, lack of sympathy. 
  83. apathy (noun) – disregard, lack of interest, unconcern.
  84. distress (noun) – difficulty, trouble, hardship.
  85. nadir (noun) – the lowest point, the all-time low, the bottom.
  86. far from (phrase) – not, not at all, nowhere near.
  87. infamous (adjective) – notorious, disreputable, ill-famed.
  88. Article 32 of the Indian Constitution (noun) – It is one of the fundamental rights listed in the Constitution that each citizen is entitled. Article 32 deals with the ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’, or affirms the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred in Part III of the Constitution.
  89. adjournment (noun) – suspension, discontinuation, postponement, rescheduling.
  90. neutrality (noun) – non-alignment, non-participation, non-involvement; impartiality, fairness, detachment.
  91. suspect (adjective) – suspicious, dubious, untrustworthy, questionable, doubtful.
  92. Farm Acts, 2000 (noun) – Farm Acts, 2000 refer to three agricultural bills passed by Indian Parliament in September 2020. The three acts are “The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020 (FPTC Act) allows farmers to sell their harvest outside the notified Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) mandis without paying any State taxes or fees”, “the Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020 facilitates contract farming and direct marketing”, and “the Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020 deregulates the production, storage, movement and sale of several major foodstuffs, including cereals, pulses, edible oils and onion, except in the case of extraordinary circumstances”.
  93. play a part/role (phrase) – contribute to, be instrumental in, be a factor in.
  94. pivotal (adjective) – central, vital, significant/important, crucial/critical.
  95. collegium (noun) – The collegium system is the one in which the Chief Justice of India and a forum of four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court recommend appointments & transfers of judges. There is no mention of the collegium in the Constitution of India.
  96. unanimously (adverb) – without opposition, agreed to by everyone involved.
  97. reiterate (verb) – repeat, say again, restate.
  98. procrastinate (verb) – delay, stall, put off, postpone (action).
  99. lay down (phrasal verb) – formulate, stipulate, frame, draw up.
  100. binding (adjective) – obligatory, compulsory, mandatory, required, requisite, necessary, essential.
  101. in-house (adjective) – internal, private, secret (an organisation).
  102. transparency (noun) – clarity, straightforwardness, openness, honesty, unambiguity.
  103. allegation (noun) – charge, accusation, indictment.
  104. harassment (noun) – persecution, persistent annoyance, coercion/intimidation.
  105. predecessor (noun) – previous holder of the post; forerunner, precursor.
  106. purport (verb) – claim, profess, pretend.
  107. clean chit (noun) – In India, the expression is used to mean ‘cleared of any wrongdoing’. Native speakers of English prefer to use ‘clean sheet’, instead.
  108. the light of day (phrase) – public attention.
  109. complainant (noun) – litigator, appellant, claimant, plaintiff.
  110. green (adjective) – environmentally friendly, non-polluting, ozone-friendly, energy-efficient, fuel-saving, low-carbon.
  111. redeeming (adjective) – compensatory, compensating.
  112. dismay (noun) – shock, surprise, concern.
  113. intervention (noun) – the process of intervening in something; involvement, interference.
  114. fell (verb) – cut down, chop down (a tree).
  115. have one’s way (phrase) – to do what one wants to do (despite objection from others).
  116. hardly (adverb) – barely, only just, narrowly, slightly.
  117. bid farewell to (phrase) – say goodbye to; give someone a warm send-off (on retirement).
  118. citadel (noun) – fortress, fort, stronghold, fortification.
  119. dignity (noun) – self-esteem, self-worth, self-respect.


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2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The chequered legacy of a Chief Justice of India) – Apr 23, 2021

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