The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021

The Trinamool Congress (TMC) government in West Bengal is a unique specimen in understanding anti-incumbency. Welfare schemes that usually make incumbents popular have added to the anti-incumbency woes… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021:

  1. alchemy (noun) – magic, wizardry, witchcraft.
  2. anti-incumbency (noun) – a situation which is against elected officials currently in power; discontent against ruling government/ party in power.
  3. assumption (noun) – supposition, presumption, belief/thought, expectation., impression, guesswork.
  4. nationalism (noun) – it refers to a system (with a narrow set of ideas) created by a group of people who believe their nation/group is superior to all others. loyalism, patriotism, ethnocentricity; separatism, secessionism, partitionism.
  5. optimistic (adjective) – positive, confident, hopeful.
  6. specimen (noun) – sample, example, instance, demonstration.
  7. welfare (noun) – a government program that provides (financial) assistance to individuals and families in need; social security, public assistance.
  8. incumbent (noun) – the present holder or occupant of an office.
  9. add to (phrase) – increase, intensify, heighten; aggravate, worsen, make worse, compound.
  10. woes (noun) – trouble, difficulty, problem.
  11. rent-seeking (noun) – a behavior that does not create economic gains for society, instead it helps a company/organisation/individual using their resources to get economic gain.
  12. cut money (noun) – the illegal commission which party workers were allegedly charging from people wishing to avail benefits from government schemes.
  13. disbursement (noun) – the act of paying out or disbursing money for a purpose, particularly to run a business.
  14. unaccountable (adjective) – incomprehensible, strange/abnormal, unanswerable, out of control.
  15. rig (verb) – manipulate/conduct something fraudulently, particularly elections.
  16. apparatus (noun) – structure, system, framework, organization.
  17. extraction (noun) – removal, taking out, withdrawal, obtaining (something using force).
  18. rather than (phrase) – instead of.
  19. dispenser (noun) – a person/thing that dispenses/distributes something.
  20. patronage (noun) – support, backing, protection.
  21. sustain (verb) – continue, carry on, keep up, maintain, bolster up.
  22. seek (verb) – try, aim, attempt.
  23. compensate (verb) –  balance out, counterbalance, offset, cancel out, neutralize.
  24. symbolism (noun) – representation of ideas/qualities; symbolic representation; comparison, relationship.
  25. backlash (noun) – a strong negative reaction; adverse response, counteraction.
  26. neutralise (verb) – eliminate, cancel out, nullify/invalidate.
  27. accumulated (adjective) – gathered, amassed, garnered, increased, multiplied.
  28. resentment (noun) – bitterness, indignation, irritation, enmity, hatred/hate.
  29. reinforce (verb) – support, strengthen, fortify, bolster up, underpin.
  30. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  31. quieten (verb) – silence, stop, make quiet; lessen, reduce, mitigate.
  32. dissatisfaction (noun) – discontent, disappointment, disquiet, unhappiness, disgruntlement, frustration.
  33. in contrast (phrase) – when compared to another.
  34. wayward (adjective) – wilful, headstrong, stubborn, unruly, ungovernable, unmanageable, unpredictable.
  35. cyclone Amphan (noun) – a powerful and catastrophic tropical cyclone that caused widespread damage in Eastern India, specifically West Bengal (and also Bangladesh) in May 2020.
  36. in the midst of (phrase) – in the middle of.
  37. spectacle (noun) – display, show, event/scene.
  38. inefficiency (noun) – incapability, inability, failure, carelessness.
  39. camouflage (verb) – disguise, hide, conceal, keep hidden, mask.
  40. pronounced (adjective) – noticeable, strong, conspicuous, striking, distinct, obvious, evident, recognizable.
  41. strategist (noun) – someone skilled in planning action/policy (especially in politics/war).
  42. acknowledge (verb) – admit, accept, realize.
  43. overarching (adjective) – all-inclusive, complete, all-embracing, comprehensive.
  44. welfarism (noun) – the principles/policies of a welfare state.
  45. universal basic income(UBI) (noun) – UBI is one where every single citizen of a country – regardless of her social, educational or economic standing – gets a guaranteed monthly income. It provides a monthly stipend that would ensure that a person would be above the poverty line without any other source of income.
  46. appeal (verb) – ask earnestly, request earnestly, request urgently, make a plea, plead.
  47. exceptionalism (noun) – the state of being special, exceptional or unique. The belief that a country, society, or individual, is “exceptional” (i.e., extraordinary).
  48. imperialism (noun) – an action that involves a country (usually an empire or a kingdom) extending its power by the acquisition of territories.
  49. invoke (verb) – cite, refer to, adduce.
  50. accompany (verb) – occur with, co-occur with, coincide with, coexist with.
  51. anchorage (noun) – grip, purchase, hold.
  52. claimant (noun) – applicant, candidate.
  53. harness (verb) – put to use, utilize/exploit, make use of.
  54. in one’s favour (phrase) – to one’s benefit/advantage.
  55. relentless (adjective) – determined, resolute, purposeful, dogged, single-minded, tireless.
  56. mobilise (verb) – bring (resources) into use for a particular purpose/cause.
  57. divide (noun) – division, separation, difference.
  58. campaign (noun) – an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making progress within a specific group.
  59. track record (noun) – previous performance, previous accomplishments, previous achievements.
  60. no holds barred (phrase) – without rules or restrictions (i.e. engage in a conflict/dispute without any rules/restrictions).
  61. double-barrel (adjective) – having two aspects.
  62. mobilisation (noun) – the act of bringing forces/people/resources together for a particular cause.
  63. cleric (noun as modifier) – a religious leader (of a Christian or Muslim Religion).
  64. headline (verb) – display, spread, trumpet, publicize.
  65. circumstances (noun) – situation, conditions, state of affairs.
  66. spook (verb) – shock, horrify, appal, panic, frighten.
  67. detested (adjective) – disliked, hated.
  68. instructive (adjective) – informative, instructional, informational, explanatory, telling, revealing.
  69. strong-arm (adjective) – aggressive, forceful, bullying, coercive, oppressive, threatening, intimidatory.
  70. central agencies (plural noun) – the central agencies like Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Directorate of Enforcement (ED), Income Tax Department (IT) and etc.
  71. basest (superlative adjective) of base (adjective) – improper, low, bad, wrong, evil, wicked, immoral, sinful.
  72. instinct (noun) – (natural) urge/desire, tendency, inclination, compulsion.
  73. threshold (noun) – it is an amount, level, or limit of something. Once the threshold is reached, something else happens or changes. point of entry, starting point.
  74. threshold population (noun) – In microeconomics, a threshold population is the minimum number of people needed for a service to be worthwhile. In geography, a threshold population is the minimum number of people necessary before a particular good or service can be provided in an area.
  75. possibility (noun) – chance, probability.
  76. spectre (noun) – threat, menace, danger/peril.
  77. rhetoric (noun) – the art of speaking or writing effectively & persuasively or impressively (but, often lacking substance); bombast, loftiness, hyperbole/extravagant language.
  78. hold back (phrasal verb) – withhold; restrict, restrain, block.
  79. flock (noun) – a large number of people; crowd, throng, horde, mob, mass.
  80. tent (noun) – camp, base.
  81. strategy (noun) – plan of action (in order to achieve a more expansive set of political, economic, and security interests).
  82. premise (verb) – assume, presuppose, predicate, posit, surmise, state.
  83. polarised (adjective) – separated into opposing two.
  84. rely on (phrasal verb) – depend on; resort to, have recourse to.
  85. demography (noun) – the composition/formation of a specific human population.
  86. permeable (adjective) – porous, penetrable, absorbent, absorptive.
  87. intellectual (adjective) – knowledgeable, civilized, clever.
  88. ingress (noun) – entry, access, means of entry, admission.
  89. exaggeration (noun) – overstatement, overemphasis, overplaying, magnification, amplification.
  90. recipient (noun) – beneficiary, receiver.
  91. formative (adjective) – determining, controlling, influential, guiding, decisive. 
  92. latent (adjective) – hidden, concealed; dormant, inactive.
  93. universal (adjective) – general, ubiquitous, common, widespread, rampant.
  94. leitmotif (noun) – subject, theme, talking point.
  95. overwrought (adjective) – tense, agitated, distracted.
  96. emphasis (noun) – importance, significance; priority, insistence.
  97. backfire (verb) – rebound/boomerang, come back, have an adverse effect.
  98. cross-border (adjective) – across a border between two countries.
  99. blunt (verb) – weaken, reduce.
  100. play out (phrasal verb) – happen, occur, take place.
  101. polarisation (noun) – separation of two contrasting groups (based on different opinions/beliefs).
  102. identity (noun) – a social category, a set of persons marked by a label and distinguished by rules deciding membership and (alleged) characteristic features or attributes; individuality, character, originality.
  103. theatre (noun) – arena, field/place/sphere of action.
  104. premise (noun) – belief/thought, assumption, supposition, presumption.
  105. refuge (noun) – a place of shelter, place of safety, safe haven.
  106. persecution (noun) – oppression, victimization, discrimination.
  107. implementation (noun) – accomplishment, achievement, realization, execution.
  108. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (noun) – The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 was passed by the Parliament of India on 11 December 2019. It amended the Citizenship Act, 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for illegal migrants of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014. Muslims from those countries were not given such eligibility.
  109. fast-track (verb) – increase or step up the progress of a project.
  110. immigrant (noun) – non-native, foreigner, migrant.
  111. portray (verb) – represent, depict, characterize, describe.
  112. illegitimate (adjective) – illegal, unlawful, against the law.
  113. affinity (noun) – harmony; relationship, bond, connection.
  114. juncture (noun) – point in time, time/moment, stage.
  115. catalyse (verb) – to cause/accelerate some action/process.
  116. renaissance (noun) – revival, renewal, re-emergence reappearance.
  117. invocation (noun) – citation, mention, calling on.
  118. traumatic (adjective) – stressful, painful, distressing, disturbing.
  119. communalism (noun) – adherence/obedience to one’s own ethnic group (against the principle/practice of living together in a wider society).
  120. separatism (noun) – dissension, nonconformity, dissent/faction.
  121. pulverise (verb) – defeat utterly, annihilate, crush/vanquish.
  122. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  123. thanks to (phrase) – as a result of, owing to, due to, because of.
  124. retelling (noun) – repetition, reiteration, restatement, saying again.
  125. ground reality (noun) – practical condition/situation.
  126. point out (phrasal verb) – identify, mention, indicate, draw attention to.
  127. at play (phrase) – in effect, happening.
  128. baggage (noun) – qualities/traits, (past) experiences, (long-held) attitudes considered as a burden.
  129. ground game (noun) – canvassing, the main activity of a political ground game. (ground game generally means hand-to-hand combat that takes place while the combatants are on the ground).
  130. so much so (phrase) – to such a great extent/level/degree.
  131. high-profile (adjective) – most important, unavoidable, attracting much public attention.
  132. rally (noun) – gathering, march, meeting.
  133. come a cropper (phrase) – fail entirely, collapse, fall down very suddenly.
  134. fraught with (adjective) – full of, filled with, loaded with.
  135. broadly (adverb) – generally, usually, mainly.
  136. besieged (adjective) – surrounded, encircled, enclosed.
  137. triangular (adjective) – three-sided, three-cornered.
  138. defector (noun) – betrayer, turncoat, traitor (a person who changes sides).


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (The alchemy of anti-incumbency) – Apr 06, 2021

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