The Hindu Lead Article (Still no recognition of the third tier) – Apr 01, 2021
This article is a brief critique of the recommendations of the Fifteenth Finance Commission with regard to local governments. The primary task of the Union Finance Commission is to rectify the vertical and horizontal imbalances… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Still no recognition of the third tier) – Apr 01, 2021.
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Courtesy: The Hindu
Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Still no recognition of the third tier) – Apr 01, 2021:
- tier (noun) – layer, level.
- Finance Commission (FC) (noun) – It is a Constitutionally mandated body that is at the centre of fiscal federalism. Set up under Article 280 of the Constitution of India, its core responsibility is to evaluate the state of finances of the Union and State Governments, recommend the sharing of taxes between them, lay down the principles determining the distribution of these taxes among States. The first Finance Commission was set up in 1951 and there have been fifteen so far.
- Fifteenth Finance Commission (FC-15) (noun) – The Fifteenth Finance Commission was constituted on 27 November 2017 against the backdrop of the abolition of the Planning Commission (as also of the distinction between Plan and non-Plan expenditure) and the introduction of the goods and services tax (GST), which has fundamentally redefined federal fiscal relations. It is constituted to give recommendations for devolution of taxes and other fiscal matters for five fiscal years, commencing 01.04.2020.
- fiscally (adverb) – financially.
- empower (verb) – enable, equip, give the power to; authorize, entitle, permit, allow.
- territorial (adjective) – local; relating to a particular territory (area/region).
- equity (noun as modifier) – fairness/justness, neutrality, impartiality, lack of discrimination, egalitarianism.
- far away (adjective/phrase) – distant in time, far off.
- critique (noun) – analysis, evaluation, assessment, appraisal.
- with regard to (phrase) – regarding, concerning, with respect to, in respect of, with reference to.
- (fiscal) imbalance (noun) – It refers to a situation where all of the future debt obligations of a government are different from the future income streams.
- vertical imbalance (noun) – it describes a situation where revenues do not match expenditures for different levels of government. It is an imbalance between the tiers (levels) of government.
- horizontal imbalance (noun) – it describes a situation where revenues do not match expenditures for different regions of the country. It is an imbalance across a single tier (level) of government.
- The 73rd and the 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts (CAA), 1992 (noun) – These acts prescribe the states to establish a three-tier system of Panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels and Municipalities in the urban areas respectively. States are expected to devolve adequate powers, responsibilities and finances upon these bodies so as to enable them to prepare plans and implement schemes for economic development and social justice. These Acts provide a basic framework of decentralisation of powers and authorities to the Panchayati Raj/Municipal bodies at different levels.
- Part IX of the Constitution (noun) – Part IX of the Indian Constitution is related to Rural Local Self Government added by the 73rd constitutional amendment act. It is also known as Panchayat Raj.
- Part IX-A of the Constitution (noun) – Part IX of the Indian Constitution is related to Urban Local Self Government added by the 74th constitutional amendment act. It is also known as Municipal.
- mandate (noun) – instruct, direct, make mandatory.
- supplement (verb) – augment, increase, add to, amplify, enlarge.
- federal (adjective) – relating to a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
- polity (noun) – a politically organized society.
- background (noun) – circumstances, context, conditions, situation.
- pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
- reinforce (verb) – support, strengthen, fortify, bolster up, underpin.
- participatory (adjective) – involving by participation.
- vertical division/distribution/devolution (noun) – it means the distribution of the net earnings (proceeds) of taxes of the Union between the Union and the States.
- horizontal division/distribution/devolution (noun) – the allocation between the States of the respective shares of (proceeds) earnings.
- lacunae (plural of) lacuna (noun) – a gap/empty space; missing part of something.
- in one’s favour (phrase) – to one’s benefit/advantage.
- for one (phrase) – used for highlighting that someone is thinking in a particular way, even if other people are not.
- remarkably (adverb) – strikingly, exceptionally, incredibly.
- measly (adjective) – very small.
- divisible pool (noun) – the taxes of the central government that it should share with the state governments in accordance with the recommendations of the Finance Commission.
- absolute (adjective) – complete, total.
- vertical (adjective) – involving all the stages/levels (of a hierarchy).
- grant (noun) – allocation, allotment.
- earmark (verb) – designate, reserve, set aside.
- primary health (care) (noun) – it is a whole-of-society approach to health and well-being centred on the needs and preferences of individuals, families and communities. It addresses the broader determinants of health and focuses on the comprehensive and interrelated aspects of physical, mental and social health and well being. (Courtesy: WHO)
- overarching (adjective) – all-inclusive, complete, all-embracing, comprehensive.
- salience (noun) – an important quality.
- viable (adjective) – reasonable, practical, logical, sensible, effective.
- rainwater harvesting (noun) – the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse.
- sanitation (noun) – it generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces (Courtesy: WHO).
- federalism/federal framework/system (noun) – a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
- leave out (phrasal verb) – exclude, omit, miss out.
- Panchayati Raj (noun) – the system of local self-government of villages in rural India as opposed to urban and suburban municipalities.
- Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) or Three-tier PR structure (noun) – The system has three levels: Gram Panchayat (village level), Mandal Parishad or Block Samiti or Panchayat Samiti (block level), and Zila Parishad (district level). It was formalized in 1992 by the 73rd amendment to the Indian Constitution.
- establishment (noun) – formation, creation, setting up.
- ombudsman (noun) – a person or organization that monitors/inspects/supervises others’ activities/conducts; watchdog, inspector/supervisor, observer.
- solid waste management (noun) – a term that is used to refer to the process of collecting and treating solid wastes.
- conditionality (noun) – It refers to the conditions/requirements attached with something (grant/allotment).
- benchmark (noun as modifier) – standard, base/basis, point of reference.
- transformative (adjective) – life-changing, forward-thinking, progressive.
- decentralised (adjective) – relating to the transfer of the power/control of a department/government from a single place to other locations.
- context (noun) – circumstances, conditions, situation.
- indifferent (adjective) – unconcerned, apathetic, uncaring, uninterested.
- criterion (noun) – basis, standard; specification, guideline. (criteria is the plural form of criterion).
- avail (verb) – use, utilize, take advantage of (an opportunity/resources).
- consistent (adjective) – steady, stable, constant.
- in tandem (phrase) – alongside each other.
- Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) (noun) – it is defined as a measure, in monetary terms, of the volume of all goods and services produced within the boundaries of the State during a given period of time, accounted without duplication.
- affluent (adjective) – wealthy, well off, prosperous.
- standardise (verb) – systematize, regulate.
- timely (adverb) – opportune, well timed, at the right time, prompt, appropriate, suitable.
- moot (noun) – debatable, doubtful, arguable, disputable, problematic.
- bring about (phrasal verb) – cause, create, produce, give rise to.
- substantive (adjective) – important, significant, considerable.
- fiscal (adjective) – financial.
- defective (adjective) –faulty, flawed, imperfect.
- besides (preposition/linking adverb) – in addition to, as well, apart from.
- presumably (adverb) – probably, in all likelihood, undoubtedly, seemingly.
- canvassing (noun) – campaigning.
- counterpart (noun) – equivalent, equal.
- heterogeneity (noun) – the state/quality of consisting of diverse elements.
- carry forward (phrasal verb) – have something to continue/handle at a later stage (to make progress).
- systematically (adverb) – methodically.
- Article 243G in The Constitution Of India (noun) – It stipulates the “Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats”.
- Article 243W in The Constitution Of India (noun) – It deals with the “Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities”.
- Article 243ZD in The Constitution Of India (noun) – It mandates the setting up of District Planning Committees (DPCs) in every state.
- decentralisation (noun) – the process of distributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.
- social justice (noun) – it is the view that everyone deserves equal economic, political, and social rights and opportunities.
- acknowledge (verb) – admit, accept, recognize, realize.
- gesture (noun) – action, deed, move.
- irrespective of (adjective) – notwithstanding, without regard for, regardless of.
- take forward (phrasal verb) – give one’s attention to, deal/cope with, address, handle.
- Alma-Ata Declaration (noun) – The Alma-Ata Declaration of the World Health Organization (1978) emerged as a major milestone of the twentieth century in the field of public health that outlined/expressed the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the health of all the people of the world.
- shelter (noun) – a place of safety, place of shelter, accommodation; safe house; home, housing.
- seek (verb) – try, aim, attempt.
- in contrast to (phrase) – in opposition to.
- stress (verb) – emphasize, draw attention to, highlight, underline, underscore.
virtually (adverb) – practically, almost, nearly.
- census (noun) – an official survey, particularly of a population.
- weightage (noun) – importance, significance, value.
- sideline (verb) – remove from the centre of activity.
- rationale (noun) – reason, reasoning/thinking, logic, grounds, basis.
- federation (noun) – organizations into a single group with centralized control.
- incentivise (verb) – encourage, motivate, galvanize.
- inefficiency (noun) – incapability, inability, failure, carelessness.
- non-accountability (noun) – non-responsibility, non-liability, non-answerability.
- far from (phrase) – not, not at all.
1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context.
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Still no recognition of the third tier) – Apr 01, 2021: