The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021

Poornima and Ashok, 80-year-old parents of two and grandparents of three, have been hunkered down in their Mumbai apartment for a year. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021:

  1. vaccination (noun) – treatment with a vaccine to protect against a particular disease; immunization.
  2. campaign (noun) – an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making progress within a specific group.
  3. hand-in-hand (phrase) – together, in partnership, closely.
  4. equitable (adjective) – fair, just, unbiased, impartial, even-handed.
  5. hunker down (phrasal verb) – to stay in a particular place for a long time, especially for protection; to prepare yourself to stay focused on a task in order to achieve something; to sit on your heels by bending your knees, squat.
  6. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  7. Oxford vaccine/Covishield (noun) – (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or (AZD1222) is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca, UK Ltd. (named Covishield in India). Serum Institute of India (SII), a biotechnology company has partnered with global pharma giant AstraZeneca and Oxford University for this vaccine candidate ‘Covidshield’.
  8. vaccinate (verb) – inoculate, administer, introduce (with a vaccine to provide immunity against a disease).
  9. step in (phrasal verb) – act, take action, become involved, get involved.
  10. make sure (phrase) – confirm, make certain, ensure.
  11. play out (phrasal verb) – happen, occur, take place.
  12. look ahead (phrasal verb) – to think about what will happen in the future.
  13. transition (noun) – change.
  14. octogenarian (noun) – a person who is in his/her 80s (80 to 89 years old).
  15. unvaccinated (adjective) – not vaccinated to provide immunity against a disease.
  16. marginalised (adjective) – treated as insignificant, treated as unimportant, neglected.
  17. equity (noun) – fairness, justness, neutrality, impartiality, egalitarianism.
  18. roll-out (noun) – official launch/introduction.
  19. result in (phrasal verb) – cause, bring on, bring about, call forth, give rise to.
  20. difference (noun) – dissimilarity, contrast, deviation, unevenness, variation.
  21. uptake (noun) – the action of taking up something (available/given).
  22. disadvantaged (adjective) – deprived, underprivileged, poverty-stricken, impoverished, poor.
  23. household (noun) – family, house.
  24. alongside (preposition) – together with.
  25. prioritisation (noun) – the activity that arranges items or activities in order of importance relative to each other.
  26. strategic (adjective) – relating to achieving long-term or overall goals.
  27. advisory (adjective) – consultative, consulting, advising, counselling, recommendatory, recommending.
  28. immunisation (noun) – the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease.
  29. sociodemographic (noun) – relating to both social and demographic factors.
  30. context (noun) – circumstances, conditions, situation.
  31. vulnerable (adjective) – relating to a weak/neglected person who is in need of special care/support/protection; ill-protected, easily affected by, prone to, at risk of.
  32. mRNA vaccine (noun) – The vaccine is a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine, which stands for “messenger ribonucleic acid”. Messenger RNA is essentially the blueprint that living cells use to turn gene sequences into the proteins that form their fundamental structures. Once injected, the mRNA in the vaccine is translated into a viral protein, which our immune systems detect. The body generates an immune response in reaction to these viral proteins, which can’t by themselves cause disease, and this provides protection against developing Covid-19.
  33. presumably (adverb) – probably, in all likelihood, undoubtedly, seemingly.
  34. vaccine carrier (noun) – vaccine container.
  35. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) (noun) – a female community health worker instituted by the government of India’s Ministry of Health and Family Welfare as a part of the National Rural Health Mission. The ASHA will be trained to work as an interface between the community and the public health system.
  36. Auxiliary Nurse Midwive (ANM) (noun) – a village-level female health workers in India who are known as the first contact persons between the community and the health services. They play a pivotal role in provision of maternal and newborn health at primary level in India.
  37. harness (verb) – utilize, use, make use of, put to use, capitalize on, employ, apply.
  38. expertise (noun) – skill, knowledge, command, mastery, prowess.
  39. neighbourhood (noun) – (surrounding) area, region, country.
  40. migrant (noun) – a person who moves from one region to another – either within a country or across national borders in order to find work or better living conditions.
  41. forego (verb) – do without, abandon, relinquish, sacrifice, refrain from.
  42. ravage (verb) – devastate, ruin, destroy, wreak havoc on, damage.
  43. tier (noun) – grade, level.
  44. explicit (adjective) – clear, straightforward, definite, specific, categorical.
  45. engagement (noun) – participation, taking part, involvement.
  46. spokespeople/spokespersons (noun) – persons who speak as the representatives of a group or organization.
  47. influenza (noun) – it is commonly known as “the flu”, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
  48. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  49. mortality (noun) – (in a particular time/for a cause) the rate/number of death.
  50. driver (noun) – a factor which produces a specific thing to happen.
  51. explicitly (adverb) – clearly, unequivocally, understandably, without question/doubt.
  52. breadwinner (noun) – the primary or sole income earner in a family.
  53. stature (noun) – status, position, standing.
  54. end up (phrasal verb) – come/appear, find oneself (to a particular course of action in the end).
  55. gender inequality (noun) – gender disparity; unfair treatment/perceptions of individuals due to their gender.
  56. inequity (noun) – unfairness, partiality, favouritism, bias, prejudice, discrimination.
  57. indigenous (adjective) – native, original, local.
  58. identity (noun) – a social category, a set of persons marked by a label and distinguished by rules deciding membership and (alleged) characteristic features or attributes.
  59. surveillance (noun) – monitoring, observation, scrutiny, inspection.
  60. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  61. gender-disaggregated data (noun) – data that are collected and analysed separately on males and females.
  62. crowd-source (verb) – to obtain funds from a large, relatively open and often rapidly-evolving group of internet users.  
  63. meta-data (noun) – data that provides information about other data. Meta is a prefix that – in most information technology usages-means “an underlying definition or description”.
  64. sequence (verb) – arrange, organize (something in an order).
  65. standardise (verb) – systematize, regulate.
  66. enforce (verb) – make something mandatory, necessitate.
  67. timely (adjective) – prompt, appropriate, opportune, well timed, at the right time.
  68. intervention (noun) – the process of intervening in something; involvement, interference.
  69. mobilisation (noun) – the act of bringing forces/people/resources together for a particular cause.
  70. recipe (noun) – formula, method, technique, system, procedure, process, means, way.
  71. dimension (noun) – aspect, feature, facet, element.
  72. plight (noun) – difficult situation, trouble/difficulty, quandary.
  73. digital divide (noun) – the gap between the people who access computers/the internet and those who don’t access them.
  74. CoWIN (noun) – a digital platform (app) developed by Union Health Ministry, India to help monitor the entire COVID-19 vaccination process in India.
  75. inequitable (adjective) – biased, unfair, unjust, discriminatory.
  76. going forward (phrase) – in the future.
  77. procure (verb) – buy, purchase.
  78. go a long way (phrase) – achieve great success; to be helpful for a significant amount of time.
  79. equitably (adverb) – fairly, impartially.
  80. tireless (adjective) – determined, resolute, enthusiastic, vigorous.
  81. in an ideal world (phrase) – it is used when you are mentioning about things that you would like to happen, although you understand that they are unlikely to happen.
  82. COVAX (noun) – COVAX is co-led by Gavi, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), and WHO. Its aim is to accelerate the development and manufacture of COVID-19 vaccines, and to guarantee fair and equitable access for every country in the world.
  83. global flu pandemic or Spanish flu or 1918 Flu Pandemic (H1N1 virus) (noun) – The global flu pandemic or Spanish flu, also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. Lasting from February 1918 to April 1920, it infected 500 million people–about a third of the world’s population at the time.
  84. booster dose (noun) – In medical terms, a booster dose is an extra administration of a vaccine after an earlier dose.
  85. wake-up call (noun) – something which alerts a person to a problem and makes him/her to do some remedial action.
  86. at the mercy of (phrase) – under the control of, under the heel of, in the power of, controlled/dominated by.
  87. embody (verb) – symbolize, represent, personify.
  88. solidarity (noun) – unity, harmony, cooperation.
  89. rejuvenated (adjective) – reconstructed, renovated, overhauled, revamped; revived, renewed, reorganized.
  90. a shot in the arm (phrase) – (figuratively) boost, fillip, stimulus, impetus, encouragement; (literally) an injection of drugs.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Refocused vaccination campaigns are possible) – Jun 12, 2021

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