The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021

“If this government ever became a tyranny, if a dictator ever took charge in this country, the technological capacity that the intelligence community has given the government could enable it to impose total tyranny,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021:

  1. pegasus (noun) – spyware, that can hack any iOS or Android device and steal a variety of data from the infected device, developed by the Israeli cyber-arms firm, NSO Group.
  2. Watergate (proper noun) – It was one of the greatest domestic scandals in American political history, leading to the resignation of the President, Richard Nixon, and the trial and conviction of many of the men closest to him. (In June 1972, an attempt was made to bug (spy) the Democratic Party office, in a complex of buildings named Watergate, based in Washington DC. The following investigation revealed a tangled web of wrongdoing of almost unfathomable (mysterious) scale and complexity, implicating (involving in a criminal activity) the highest levels of the White House administration up to and including the president).
  3. intelligence (noun) – the collection of (military/political) information.
  4. professionalize (verb) – to provide a professional quality to something.
  5. oversight (noun) – supervision, surveillance, inspection, administration, management.
  6. tyranny (noun) – autocracy, dictatorship, undemocratic rule, totalitarianism, fascism.
  7. resistance (noun) – opposition, defiance, confrontation.
  8. within reach (phrase) – obtainable, accessible.
  9. in the aftermath of (phrase) – as a consequence of, as a result of.
  10. aftermath (noun) – consequences, effects, results, repercussions.
  11. scandal (noun) – impropriety, misconduct, wrongdoing.
  12. revelation (noun) – disclosure, declaration, report/news, announcement.
  13. sign (noun) – indication.
  14. point to (verb) – indicate, suggest, denote.
  15. spyware (noun) – a category of software which aims to steal personal or organisational information.
  16. regulation (noun) – supervision, overseeing, monitoring, inspection.
  17. unaccountable (adjective) – incomprehensible, unfathomable, mystifying, mysterious; unanswerable, out of control.
  18. shadowy (adjective) – indistinguishable, unrecognizable, ill-defined.
  19. accountable (adjective) – responsible, liable, answerable.
  20. go easy on (phrase) – take it easy; to be sympathetic with someone (and not to be harsh/demanding).
  21. liken (verb) – compare, equate, correlate.
  22. body politic (noun) – all the people of a particular country.
  23. come at a cost/price (phrase) – to have a negative consequence.
  24. imperil (verb) – endanger, jeopardize, put in danger.
  25. freedom of speech (noun) – the right to express opinions without government interference.
  26. chilling (adjective) – frightening, terrifying, disturbing/horrifying.
  27. shatter (verb) – damage, destroy, wreck, ruin, devastate, demolish.
  28. bedrock (noun) – core, basis/base, foundation.
  29. rule of law (phrase) – it is described as “a principle of governance in which all persons, institutions and entities, public and private, including the State itself, are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced and independently adjudicated, and which are consistent with international human rights norms and standards.
  30. prosecution (noun) – legal action, legal proceeding, litigation.
  31. espionage (noun) – the act of spying; obtaining secret or confidential (political or military) information of a country and/or disclosing it without the permission of that country; undercover work, infiltration, counter-intelligence.
  32. proportionate (adjective) – relevant, appropriate, applicable; in accordance with, consistent with, commensurate.
  33. on the contrary (phrase) – conversely, just the opposite.
  34. harass (verb) – persecute, disturb, trouble, bother, torment.
  35. embroil (verb) – involve, entangle, catch up, mire.
  36. alleged (adjective) – supposed, claimed, professed, purported, reported, ostensible.
  37. covert (adjective) – secret, furtive, stealthy.
  38. admit (verb) – accept, acknowledge, own up to.
  39. necessity (noun) – (essential) requirement, prerequisite, indispensable thing.
  40. shut down (phrasal verb) – cease activity, close down, cease operation.
  41. public interest (noun) – the public good; the advantage/benefit of the community in general.
  42. swear in (phrasal verb) – introduce, institute, initiate.
  43. affidavit (noun) – sworn statement, self-attestation, self-declaration.
  44. Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) (noun) – a statutory authority functioning under the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963. It is the apex decision making body in matters of income tax.
  45. prosecute (verb) – take to court, bring an action against, accuse, charge.
  46. actor (noun) – participants (in an action).
  47. non-state actor (noun) – an individual or organization that has significant political influence.
  48. state actor (noun) – a state actor is a person who is acting on behalf of a governmental body.
  49. estranged (adjective) – divorced, separated.
  50. spouse (noun) – husband, wife, partner.
  51. be nothing to do with (phrase) – be unconnected with, be unrelated to.
  52. hold someone responsible/accountable for (phrase) – blame someone for something.
  53. interception (noun) – the action of preventing/monitoring/receiving something (message/code/signal) from reaching its destination.
  54. Section 92 of the CrPC (noun) – It deals with “procedure as to letters and telegrams”.
  55. Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) (noun) – The Code of Criminal Procedure (in India). The main legislation on procedure for administration of substantive criminal law in India. It was enacted in 1973 and came into force on 1 April 1974. CrPC tells about the criminal trial procedure.
  56. Rule 419A of the Telegraph Rules, 1951 (noun) – It deals with “directions for interception of any message or class of messages under sub-section (2) of Section 5 of the Indian Telegraph Act.
  57. Sections 69 and 69B of the IT Act (noun) – The Central government, under Section 69 of the Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000, has the power to impose reasonable restrictions on this right and intercept, decrypt or monitor Internet traffic or electronic data whenever there is a threat to national security, national integrity, security of the state, and friendly relations with other countries, or in the interest of public order and decency, or to prevent incitement to commission of an offence. Section 69B deals with “Power to authorise to monitor and collect traffic data or information through any computer resource for cyber security”.
  58. Information Technology Act (noun) – it is an Act of the Indian Parliament notified on 17 October 2000. It is the primary law in India dealing with cybercrime and electronic commerce.
  59. intercept (verb) – receive message (by monitoring (radio) communications/signals secretly).
  60. central agencies (plural noun) – the central agencies are organizations in the executive branch that co-ordinate the activities of, and provide guidance to the operating ministries and agencies; e.g. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Directorate of Enforcement (ED), Income Tax Department (IT) and etc.
  61. empower (verb) – authorize, allow, permit.
  62. Intelligence Organisations Act, 1985 (noun) – An Act to provide for the restriction of certain rights conferred by Part III of the Constitution in their application to the members of certain organisations established by the Central
    Government for purposes of intelligence or counter-intelligence so as to ensure the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them.
  63. civil liberty (noun) – freedoms guaranteed to us by the Constitution to protect us from the government.
  64. Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005 (noun) – An Act to provide for setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority, the constitution of a Central Information Commission and State Information Commissions and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  65. exempt (verb) – free from, not liable to, not subject to (an obligation).
  66. alphabetic soup (noun) – a combination of mixed up things (that is difficult to understand).
  67. statute (noun) – act/law, regulation, rule (written & laid down by the legislature).
  68. fall short of (phrase) – fail to meet/reach; be deficient/inadequate/insufficient.
  69. make clear (phrase) – explain, clarify, elucidate.
  70. invasion (noun) – violation, infringement, interruption, breach.
  71. call for (phrasal verb) – require, publicly ask/necessitate, demand.
  72. legislative (adjective) – parliamentary.
  73. Parliamentary Standing Committee/Parliamentary panel (noun) – it is a committee (consisting of Members of Parliament) constituted usually on an annual basis to enable detailed consideration/discussion on all bills (all proposed laws).
  74. parliamentarian (noun) – a member of a parliament.
  75. Bill (noun) – A Bill is a draft statute that becomes law after it is passed by both the Houses of Parliament and assented to by the President. All legislative proposals are brought before Parliament in the forms of Bills.
  76. lapse (verb) – expire, become void/invalid terminate, become obsolete.
  77. think-tank (noun) – a panel of experts.
  78. Institute for Defence and Strategic Analysis (IDSA) (noun) – a non-partisan, autonomous body dedicated to objective research and policy relevant studies on all aspects of defence and security. Its mission is to promote national and international security through the generation and dissemination of knowledge on defence and security-related issues.
  79. parliamentary scrutiny (noun) – the close examination and investigation of government policies, actions and spending by the parliamentary (standing & select) committees.
  80. unconstitutional (adjective) – undemocratic, autocratic, dictatorial, totalitarian.
  81. National Investigation Agency (NIA) (noun) – The National Investigation Agency is a central agency established by the Indian Government to combat terror in India. It is functioning as the Central Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency in the country. The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is created following the terror attack in Mumbai on December 26, 2008. It came into being on December 31, 2008, with the passage of the NIA Act of 2008.
  82. manifesto (noun) – a publication issued by a political party before a General Election. It contains the set of policies that the party stands for and would wish to implement if elected to govern; (policy) statement, declaration, pronouncement.
  83. legacy (noun) – something received from a predecessor or from the past.
  84. Church Committee, 1975-76 (noun) – Following the Watergate Scandal, the Senate conducted a thorough review of the function, operation, and administration of the United States intelligence community. A special committee, the Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities was established to conduct the sweeping audit of national intelligence services. Known as the “Church Committee” after its chairman Frank Church, the committee investigated not only the actions and operations of the intelligence and security services, but also abuses of those services by the Office of the president.
  85. spy on (verb) – watch secretly, observe furtivelykeep under observation, keep an eye on.
  86. partisan (adjective) – biased, prejudiced, one-sided.
  87. National Security Agency (NSA) (noun) – U.S. intelligence agency within the Department of Defense that is responsible for cryptographic and communications intelligence and security.
  88. overreach (noun) – an act of trying to do too much or overdoing something.
  89. USA PATRIOT Act, 2001 (noun) – an Act of the United States Congress, signed into law by President George W. Bush. USA PATRIOT is a backronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism.
  90. checks and balances (plural noun) – a system in which all departments of a government organization have right to amend/limit the powers of the other departments in order to avoid dominance of one department.
  91. The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (noun) – a U.S. federal court established and authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 to oversee requests for surveillance warrants against foreign spies inside the United States by federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
  92. provision (noun) – clause, (legal) term, stipulation, requirement, condition.
  93. non-partisan (adjective) – fair, unbiased, impartial, neutral.
  94. seize (verb) – take, capture (suddenly); take (an opportunity) eagerly.
  95. seize the opportunity (phrase) – take advantage of.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Pegasus is India’s Watergate moment) – Jul 21, 2021

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