The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021

On Sunday, February 28, there was a sensational report in The New York TimesChina appears to warn India: push too hard and the lights could go out, based on investigations by a United States-based cybersecurity firm. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021:

  1. patch (verb) – improve or correct (a routine or program) by inserting a patch.
  2. cybersecurity (noun) – the protection of internet-connected systems, including hardware, software, and data from cyber attacks.
  3. doctrinal (adjective) – relating to doctrine (a stated principle of government policy).
  4. institutional (adjective) – organized, established, structured, regulated.
  5. coherence (noun) – unity, consistency, logicality, organization.
  6. robust (adjective) – strong, vigorous, powerful.
  7. posture (noun) – position.
  8. sensational (adjective) – shocking, appalling, horrifying.
  9. power outage (noun) – (electricity) power grid failure; loss of (electricity) power.
  10. state-sponsored (adjective) – supported by the government.
  11. acknowledge (verb) – admit, accept, realize.
  12. potentially (adverb) – possibly, probably.
  13. sabotage (noun) – sabotage is defined as deliberate and malicious acts that result in the disruption of the normal processes and functions or the destruction or damage of equipment or information; deliberate damage, destruction, obstruction, disruption; spoiling, ruining.
  14. in the public domain (phrase) – if something (e.g. information) is in the public domain, people generally know about it since it is no secret.
  15. therein (adverb) – in that place.
  16. the rub (noun) – problem, difficulty, obstacle.
  17. table (verb) – submit, put forward, present, propose, introduce. 
  18. cyber espionage (noun) – cyber spying; it describes the illegal access to (secret & sensitive) information stored on individual computers or whole computer networks.
  19. dub (verb) – call, name, tag.
  20. GhostNet (noun) – GhostNet is the name given to a large-scale cyber espionage operation discovered in March 2009. The operation’s command and control infrastructure was based mainly in the People’s Republic of China and had infiltrated high-value political, economic, and media locations in 103 countries. At least 1,295 computer systems were compromised, including systems belonging to embassies, foreign ministries, government offices, and the Dalai Lama’s Tibetan exile centers in India, London, and New York City.
  21. exile (noun) – banishment, expulsion, deportation; a person who lives away from his/her native country.
  22. embassy (noun) – the diplomatic office building in a foreign country where the ambassador & team live and work; consulate, mission.
  23. pursue (verb) – engage in, conduct, follow.
  24. Shadow Network (noun) – a China-based computer espionage operation (2010) that stole classified documents and emails from the Indian government, the office of the Dalai Lama, and other high-level government networks. This extensively targeted Indian entities, including military establishments, news publications, and even the National Security Council Secretariat itself.
  25. entity (noun) – organization, institution, establishment.
  26. under way (phrase) – in progress, happening, occurring, taking place.
  27. subsequent (adjective) – following, ensuing, successive.
  28. Stuxnet (noun) – Stuxnet (2010) is a computer worm that was originally aimed at Iran’s nuclear facilities and has since mutated and spread to other industrial and energy-producing facilities. it exploits multiple vulnerabilities in Windows-based computers that provide an interface to industrial control systems (ICS) that run industrial processes.
  29. take down (phrasal verb) – remove, dismantle, demolish.
  30. Suckfly (noun) – a Chinese cyber-espionage group (2014); a professional hacking group from China targeted India’s infrastructure and economic base by zeroing in on individuals and installing tools to access their work networks. It targeted not just government but also private entities including a firm that provided tech support to the National Stock Exchange; The high-profile targets include one of India’s largest financial institutions, an e-commerce company and its primary shipping vendor, a leading Indian IT company, two government organisations, and an American health care provider’s Indian business unit.
  31. National Stock Exchange (NSE) (noun) – The National Stock Exchange of India Limited is the country’s leading financial exchange, with headquarters in Mumbai. It was incorporated in 1992 and, since then, has evolved into an advanced, automated, electronic system offering trading facilities to investor across the country. In 2015, this exchange system ranked the fourth place in the world according to the metric of its trading volume. Trading commenced in 1994 with the launch of the wholesale debt market and a cash market segment shortly thereafter.
  32. Dtrack (noun) – a spytool which has proliferated Indian financial institutions and research centres. The new spyware is a different strain of the ARMDtrack malware that was discovered in 2018. It was created to infiltrate ATMs in the country and siphon card data of customers. It targeted the Kudankulam nuclear power plant (Tamil Nadu) in 2019.
  33. redacted (adjective) – edited or censored, particularly of sensitive information before publication for legal/security reasons.
  34. make public (phrase) – announce, communicate, make known, disseminate.
  35. Parliamentarian (noun) – a member of a parliament.
  36. perfunctory (adjective) – casual, uninterested, careless.
  37. appraise (verb) – review, consider, assess, evaluate.
  38. wrought (verb) – (old) past and past participle of work; cause, effect.
  39. craft (verb) – to make something (with skill).
  40. narrative (noun) – a representation of a particular situation; report, statement, portrayal/account.
  41. on a side note (phrase) – it means you are about to mention something that is less significant/important to the subject matter; by the way, incidentally.
  42. infrastructure (noun) – structure, framework, mechanisms.
  43. WikiLeaks (noun) – an international non-profit organisation that publishes news leaks and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
  44. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (noun) – an independent civilian intelligence agency of the United States government that compiles intelligence information, conducts counterintelligence activities outside the United States, and advises the President and the National Security Council on matters of foreign intelligence and national security.
  45. UMBRAGE (noun) – The project, called UMBRAGE, is just one of a range of different hacking tools.
  46. attribution to (noun) – The action of ascribing a work to a particular person.
  47. nation-state (noun) – a state (country) in which a great majority shares the same culture and is conscious of it. The nation state is an ideal in which cultural boundaries match up with political boundaries. An independent state which consists of people from one particular national group.
  48. false flag (noun) – A false flag cyberattack is when a hacker or hacking group stages an attack in a way that attempts to fool their victims and the world about who’s responsible or what their aims are. The techniques used in this type of attack run a gamut that ranges from simply issuing false claims of responsibility to emulating the tools, techniques, and even languages typically used by the group or country the attackers are trying to frame; The term false flag originated during World War I, when British and German auxiliary ships would fly the ensigns (flags) of other countries-sometimes the British would fly German flags, or vice versa-in order to deceive their enemies.
  49. leave behind (phrasal verb) – to leave a trace of something.
  50. given (preposition) – considering, taking into account, bearing in mind.
  51. murky (adjective) – questionable, suspicious, dubious,/mysterious.
  52. necessitate (verb) – make necessary, require, need, demand, call for.
  53. acumen (noun) – astuteness, shrewdness, sharpness, cleverness.
  54. cybersecurity resilience (noun) – the ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from cyber-attacks.
  55. span (verb) – extend/spread over, stretch across.
  56. portfolio (noun) – a range of products or services.
  57. chair (verb) – preside over, lead, control/direct.
  58. National Security Council (NSC) (noun) – an executive government agency tasked with advising the Prime Minister’s Office on matters of national security and strategic interest. It was established by the former prime minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 19 November 1998, with Brajesh Mishra as the first National Security Advisor.
  59. play a part/role (phrase) – contribute to, be instrumental in, be a factor in.
  60. ecosystem (noun) – complex situation/environment.
  61. National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre  (NCIIPC)  (noun) – National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) is an organisation of the Government of India created under Sec 70A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (amended 2008), through a gazette notification on 16th Jan 2014 based in New Delhi, India. It is designated as the National Nodal Agency in respect of Critical Information Infrastructure Protection.
  62. National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) (noun) – It is a technical intelligence Agency under the National Security Advisor in the Prime Minister’s Office, India. It was set up in 2004. It also includes National Institute of Cryptology Research and Development, which is first of its kind in Asia.
  63. Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) (noun) – it is a nodal entity responding to various cybersecurity threats to non-critical infrastructure comes under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY).
  64. Defence Information Assurance and Research Agency (DIARA) (noun) – it is a nodal agency mandated to deal with all cyber security related issues of Tri Services and Ministry of Defence is having a close coordination with national agencies like Computer Emergency Response team – India (Cert-In) and National Training Research organisation (NTRO).
  65. Defence Cyber Agency (DCA) (noun) – a tri-service command of the Indian armed forces to coordinate and control joint cyber operations, and craft India’s cyber doctrine.
  66. tri-service (adjective) – relating to three services, especially an army, navy, and air force.
  67. address (verb) – tackle, deal with, attend to, try to sort out.
  68. espionage (noun) – the act of spying; obtaining secret or confidential (political or military) information of a country and/or disclosing it without the permission of that country; undercover work, infiltration, counter-intelligence.
  69. diplomacy (noun) – international politics, foreign affairs, foreign policy; negotiations, discussions, talks, dialogue (related to international politics).
  70. push (noun) – effort, initiative, drive.
  71. bilaterally (adverb) – between the two countries involved.
  72. counter (verb) – oppose, resist, tackle, confront.
  73. mitigate (verb) – reduce, lessen, decrease, make less severe.
  74. result in (phrasal verb) – cause, bring on, bring about, call forth, give rise to.
  75. lack of (noun) – absence, deficiency, scarcity.
  76. accountability (noun) – responsibility, liability, answerability.
  77. National Cyber Security Strategy (NCSS) (noun) – a plan of actions designed to improve the security and resilience of national infrastructures and services. The proposed strategy aimed at bringing together all cybersecurity agencies for securing, strengthening and synergising the cybersecurity ecosystem by closely associating with businesses, citizens and beyond.
  78. actor (noun) – participants (in an action).
  79. articulate (verb) – announce, express, pronounce, point out.
  80. holistically (adverb) – comprehensively, totally, completely.
  81. offensive (adjective) – hostile, attacking, aggressive, combative.
  82. countermeasure (noun) – solution, answer, antidote.
  83. cyber attack (noun) – a malicious and deliberate attempt by an individual or organization to breach the information system (computer network) of another individual or organization. an attack on an information or computer network as an “attempt to destroy, expose, alter, disable, steal or gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of anything that has value to the individual/organization.
  84. engagement (noun) – participation, taking part, involvement.
  85. regime (noun) – system.
  86. No first use (NFU) (noun) – Since conducting its second nuclear tests, Pokhran-II, in 1998, India has adhered to a self-imposed commitment to ‘No First Use’ (NFU) of nuclear weapons on another country.
  87. armageddon (noun) – a final battle or conflict (highly destructive/catastrophic).
  88. fraught (adjective) – anxious, worried, distressed/panicky.
  89. ambiguity (noun) – inexactness, doubtfulness, obscurity/opacity.
  90. geopolitical (adjective) – relating to (the study of) the geographical factors (a country’s position on the earth, size, climate, and natural resources & etc.) in world politics and inter-state relations.
  91. scenario (noun) – situation, background, context.
  92. asymmetry (noun) – lack of equality, non-uniformity, unevenness, lack of symmetry.
  93. (in) the absence (phrase) – due to unavailability of something.
  94. credible (adjective) – acceptable, trustworthy, reliable, dependable; believable, plausible, reasonable.
  95. deterrence (noun) – the act of deterring/stopping someone from doing something.
  96. state actor (noun) – a state actor is a person who is acting on behalf of a governmental body.
  97. non-state actor (noun) – an individual or organization that has significant political influence.
  98. alike (adverb) – equally.
  99. incentivise (verb) – encourage, motivate, galvanize.
  100. undertake (verb) – begin, start, launch into; engage in, become involved in, take part in.
  101. red line (noun) – boundary, limit.
  102. norms (noun) – standard, convention, guidelines, criterion.
  103. cyberspace (noun) – It refers to the virtual computer world, and more specifically, an electronic medium that is used to facilitate online communication.
  104. disarmament (noun) – demilitarization, limitation or reduction of arms, deactivation of military weapons.
  105. delegation (noun) – a body of delegates/representatives; diplomatic mission, commission, deputation.
  106. intervention (noun) – the process of intervening in something; involvement, interference.
  107. barring (preposition) – except for, with the exception of, apart from, other than, excluding.
  108. herein (adverb) – in this.
  109. articulation (noun) – expression, revelation, assertion, mention.
  110. strategic interest (noun) – it is a broad term that usually requires a relationship between two parties/countries that is mutually beneficial to both of them. The benefits can come in the form of increased safety, Better Trade relations, access to financial markets, etc.
  111. non-binding (adjective) – not legally binding (compulsory, obligatory, necessary); inoperative, invalid.
  112. obligation (noun) – duty, responsibility, commitment.
  113. with respect to (phrase) – concerning, regarding, relating to, with reference to.
  114. illegitimate (adjective) – illegal, unlawful, against the law.
  115. due to (phrase) – because of, owing to, on account of, as a result of.
  116. transparency (noun) – clarity, straightforwardness, openness, honesty, unambiguity.
  117. the need of the hour (phrase) – some (urgent) need/requirement/demand at a particular point of time.
  118. proxy (noun) – deputy, representative, substitute.
  119. adversary (noun) – rival, enemy, nemesis, opponent.


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2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Patching the gaps in India’s cybersecurity) – Mar 06, 2021

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