The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020

The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020

Evaluation of candidate vaccines for COVID-19 should be done on technical parameters and programmatic suitability. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020:

  1. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  2. race (noun) – competition, contest.
  3. lap (noun) –  stage, phase, round, circuit (in a race).
  4. concise (adjective) – succinct, to the point, short/brief, incisive/clear.
  5. recipient (noun) – beneficiary, receiver.
  6. prioritisation (noun) – the activity that arranges items or activities in order of importance relative to each other.
  7. evaluation (noun) – assessment, analysis, appraisal.
  8. candidate vaccine or vaccine candidate (noun) – a “potential” vaccine prepared in the research and development (R&D) centres and it can be used in human clinical trials.
  9. programmatic (adjective) – methodical, disciplined, systematic.
  10. immunity (noun) – protection (from disease).
  11. variant (noun) – different or form or version or mutant of something (virus).
  12. durable (adjective) – long-lasting, long-lived, resistant, strong/secure.
  13. adverse (adjective) – unfavourable, disadvantageous, bad.
  14. dose (noun) – an amount/quantity of something.
  15. at worst (phrase) – in the most serious case.
  16. vial (noun) – a small glass container.
  17. shelf life (noun) – the length of time that a product it can be kept/stored without deteriorating its functionality, effectiveness, and stability.
  18. amenable to (adjective) – manageable, responsive, flexible, easily handled.
  19. characteristic (noun) – attribute, feature, quality, aspect.
  20. fare (verb) – perform.
  21. pipe dream (noun) – false hope, daydream, unrealizable/unattainable dream.
  22. look at (phrasal verb) – consider, regard, think of.
  23. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  24. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  25. vaccination (noun) – treatment with a vaccine to protect against a particular disease; immunization.
  26. influenza (noun) – it is commonly known as “the flu”, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
  27. coronavirus (CoV) (noun) – a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death. (Courtesy: WHO)
  28. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (noun) – SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to be an animal virus from an as-yet-uncertain animal reservoir, perhaps bats, that spread to other animals (civet cats). It is a viral (human-to-human transmission) that can cause severe respiratory illness or death.
  29. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (noun) – Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012.
  30. immunogenic (adjective) – relating to a foreign substance that provokes an immune response in the body.
  31. antibody (noun) – it is also called ‘immunoglobulin’; a protective protein produced mainly by plasma (blood) cells in the immune system in response to the presence of antigens (disease causing organisms (bacteria & viruses) and other harmful/toxic foreign substances like insect venom).
  32. acquisition (noun) – the act of obtaining or acquiring something.
  33. fuel (verb) – stimulate, intensify, fan.
  34. induce (verb) – produce, bring about, bring on, cause.
  35. immunological (adjective) – relating to immunology (the study of immune systems in all organisms).
  36. consequence (noun) – result, outcome, effect; ramification, repercussion.
  37. breadth (noun) – wide range, extent, scope; extensiveness.
  38. come to light (phrase) – appear, come out, transpire, show up, pop up.
  39. surveillance (noun) – observation, scrutiny, inspection.
  40. in place (phrase) – ready, set up, established.
  41. eventuality (noun) – a possible outcome, possibility.
  42. compensation (noun) – payment, repayment, settlement (for loss/damage). 
  43. effectiveness (noun) – success, efficacy, potency, power.
  44. thermostable (adjective) – capable of withstanding (moderate) heat.
  45. Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) (noun) – the predominant vaccine used in the fight to eradicate polio.
  46. frontrunner (noun) – expected winner, probable winner.
  47. phase 3 trial (noun) – In phase 3 trial, the vaccine is given to thousands of people to confirm its safety – including rare side effects – and effectiveness. These trials involve a control group which is given a placebo.
  48. phase 2 trial (noun) – In phase 2 trial, the vaccine is given to hundreds of people so scientists can learn more about its safety and correct dosage.
  49. phase 1 trial (noun) – In phase 1 trial of clinical testing, the vaccine is given to a small group of people to determine whether it is safe and to learn more about the immune response it provokes.
  50. human trial (noun) – a type of research that studies new tests and treatments and evaluates their effects on human health outcomes; clinical trial.
  51. dilemma (noun) – quandary, predicament, difficulty.
  52. given (preposition) – considering, taking into account, bearing in mind.
  53. scenario (noun) – situation.
  54. put all its eggs in one basket (phrase) – don’t take the risk of depending on the success of one thing.
  55. rank (verb) – classify, categorize.
  56. captivity (noun) – subjection; restraint, constraint, confinement.
  57. formal/organised sector (noun) – formal economy; it is the part of an economy that is taxed and monitored by the government.
  58. informal/unorganized sector (noun) – informal economy, grey economy; it is the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government.
  59. criterion (noun) – basis, standard, norm. (criteria is the plural form of criterion).
  60. intersect (verb) – criss-cross.
  61. immunise (verb) – vaccinate, inoculate, inject (a vaccine).
  62. equity (noun) – fairness, justness, neutrality, impartiality.
  63. paramilitary (adjective) – (of  semi-militarized force) organized like a military force.
  64. off the block (phrase) – at the very beginning; immediately.
  65. go ahead (phrasal verb) – to proceed, to continue to do something, to start/begin to do something.
  66. trade-off (noun) – a situation in which you must choose between (balance) two things that are opposite or cannot be had at the same time; a compromise; swap, exchange.
  67. vaccinate (verb) – immunize, protect from, safeguard from, shield from.
  68. buy time (phrase) – delay, linger, be slow, hold back, lag behind.
  69. roll-out (noun) – an act of launching/introducing something officially.
  70. mobilisation (noun) – the act of bringing people/resources together for a particular cause.
  71. co-morbidity (noun) – the presence of one or more additional conditions (diseases/problems) co-occurring/co-existing with a primary condition (disease/problem).
  72. institutionalised (adjective) – kept in a residential (care) institution. (Residential (care) institution means a health care institution other than a hospital or a nursing care institution which provides resident beds or residential units, supervisory care services, personal care service, directed care services or health-related services for persons who do not need inpatient nursing care).
  73. community-dwelling (noun) – refers to individuals who live in a private residence, which could include a retirement community, but not a personal care home (residential care institution).
  74. sort of (phrase) – to some extent, somewhat, somehow, slightly.
  75. vulnerable (adjective) – relating to a weak/neglected person who is in need of special care/support.
  76. migrant (noun) – a person who moves from one region to another – either within a country or across national borders in order to find work or better living conditions.
  77. refugee (noun) – displaced person, asylum seeker.
  78. outreach (noun) – the level of reaching out/activity/effort; involvement.
  79. facilitate (verb) – make easy, make possible; assist, help/aid.
  80. wherewithal (noun) – resources, means.
  81. recede (verb) – diminish, lessen, decrease, retreat.
  82. in terms of (phrase) – with regard to, regarding/concerning, in connection with.
  83. outbreak (noun) – outburst, flaring up, breakout, sudden appearance/occurrence of something.
  84. possibility (noun) – chance, probability.
  85. immunisation (noun) – the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease.
  86. expedited (adjective) – accelerated, hastened, quickened.
  87. concern oneself with (verb) – be associated with, concern oneself with, involve oneself with, have dealings with.
  88. needy (adjective) – poor/poverty-stricken, underprivileged, impoverished.
  89. in the public domain (phrase) – if something (e.g. information) is in the public domain, people generally know about it since it is not secret.
  90. transparent (adjective) – open/candid, forthright, straightforward, honest.
  91. heartburn (noun) – discomfort, inconvenience, difficulty.
  92. quarter (noun) – area, region, part of a country.
  93. misstep (noun) – mistake, blunder, false step.
  94. wouldn’t want to be in shoes (phrase) – used to say that someone else is in a bad/difficult situation.
  95. inevitable (adjective) – unavoidable, unpreventable.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020:

The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (In vaccine race last lap, the key steps for India) – Nov 23, 2020

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