The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021

Between vaccine wars, heated debates over the Goods and Services Tax (GST), personnel battles like the fracas over West Bengal’s Chief Secretary, and the pushback… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021:

  1. stirring (noun) – the starting of a motion, activity, feeling, emotion, idea, etc.
  2. federalism/federal framework/system (noun) – a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
  3. harness (verb) – utilize, use, make use of, put to use, capitalize on, employ, apply.
  4. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  5. heated (adjective) – intense, vehement, passionate.
  6. fracas (noun) – disturbance, uproar, commotion, quarrel, tussle, fight.
  7. pushback (noun) – resistance, opposition, force back, repulse drive.
  8. regulation (noun) – rule, order, directive, act, law.
  9. federal (adjective) – relating to a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
  10. bargain (noun) – agreement, arrangement, understanding, deal.
  11. emboldened (adjective) – encouraged, motivated; strengthened, fortified.
  12. front (noun) – political group.
  13. cache (noun) – store, stock, collection, accumulation, reserve.
  14. craft (verb) – exercise skill in making something.
  15. ideological (adjective) – relating to a system of ideas (ideology).
  16. narrative (noun) – a representation of a particular situation; portrayal/account.
  17. discourse (noun) – discussion, conversation, communication, expression.
  18. push back (phrasal verb) – force back, repel, fight off; refuse, reject, prevent.
  19. fiscal (adjective) – financial.
  20. centralisation (noun) – the process of having functions, powers, people or things only in a central location or authority.
  21. fiscal centralisation (noun) – it involves shifting all responsibilities for expenditures and/or revenues to the union/center government. 
  22. emphasis (noun) – importance, significance; priority, insistence.
  23. forge (verb) – form, create, establish, set up.
  24. relevance (noun) – significance, importance.
  25. States Reorganisation Act, 1956 (noun) – An Act to provide for the reorganisation of the States of India and for matters connected therewith. In 1956, when the Constitution of India was amended to implement the provisions of the States Reorganisation Act, only two categories, namely, States and Union Territories remained in the Indian Union. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change in state boundaries since the Independence of India in 1947.
  26. mobilisation (noun) – the act of bringing forces/people/resources together for a particular cause.
  27. decade (noun) – a period of ten years.
  28. ironically (adverb) – paradoxically, unexpectedly, strangely.
  29. deepen (verb) – intensify, strengthen, increase.
  30. contingency (noun) – a possible event or circumstance, happening, occurrence of a possible incident but not guaranteed/certain to happen/occur.
  31. impediment (noun) – obstacle, barrier, obstruction, hindrance.
  32. consensus (noun) – an idea or opinion that is shared by all the people in a group.
  33. confront with (verb) – trouble, bother, distress, oppress.
  34. entrenched (adjective) – ingrained, established, well established.
  35. regime (noun) – government.
  36. nationalism (noun) – it refers to a system (with a narrow set of ideas) created by a group of people who believe their nation is superior to all others. It is also a perception of national superiority and an orientation toward national dominance- called chauvinism (excessive nationalism).
  37. wicket (noun) – barrier.
  38. rhetoric (noun) – the art of speaking or writing effectively & persuasively or impressively (but, often lacking substance); bombast, loftiness, hyperbole/extravagant language.
  39. purchase (noun) – advantage, support, grip, leverage.
  40. ideologically (adverb) – dogmatically, conventionally; in a method which relates to an ideology.
  41. relatively (adverb) – comparatively, proportionately, somewhat, to a certain extent/degree.
  42. accommodate (verb) – adjust, adapt, attune, get accustomed, come to terms with, come to accept.
  43. linguistic (adjective) – relating to language; lingual.
  44. ethnic (adjective) – relating to a population subgroup (cultural, national, traditional/folk) with a common national or cultural tradition.
  45. identity (noun) – a social category, a set of persons marked by a label and distinguished by rules deciding membership and (alleged) characteristic features or attributes; individuality, character, originality.
  46. couch (verb) – express, formulate, communicate, set forth, put across.
  47. discomfiture (noun) – embarrassment, discomfort, humiliation.
  48. grammar (noun) – the basic elements (of an area of knowledge).
  49. appeal (noun) – attraction, interest, temptation, drawing power, enticement.
  50. framing (noun) – statement, identification, definition, description.
  51. regionalism (noun) – excess caring for one’s region and to all related to it.
  52. narrow (adjective) – narrow-minded, intolerant, illiberal, shortsighted, myopic, inward-looking.
  53. parochialism (noun) – narrow-mindedness, localism, provincialism.
  54. nationalist (noun/adjective) – relating to nationalism.
  55. pit against (verb) – set against, match against, put in opposition to, put in competition with.
  56. ask (noun) – demand.
  57. uphold (verb) – confirm, endorse/approve, vindicate/validate.
  58. decentralisation (noun) – the process of distributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.
  59. backyard (noun) – the territory/area close to a particular country.
  60. rhetorical (adjective) – relating to the art of speaking or writing effectively & persuasively or impressively (but, often lacking substance); oratorical, overblown, extravagant, bombastic.
  61. contingent (adjective) – subject to chance, unpredictable; conditional, dependent.
  62. principled (adjective) – ethical, righteous, high-minded, right-minded, proper/correct.
  63. point out (phrasal verb) – identify, mention, indicate, draw attention to.
  64. thee (pronoun) – archaic (old-fashioned) form of “you” (when “you” as the object of a sentence (e.g. I love thee!)).
  65. rendition (noun) – depiction, portrayal, representation.
  66. upmanship (noun) – one-upmanship; the way of behaving in which a person attempts to get an advantage by appearing superior to/better than another person (a friend/opponent); boastfulness, showing off, self-promotion, attention-seeker. 
  67. partisan (adjective) – biased, prejudiced, one-sided.
  68. accommodation (noun) – adjustment, adaptation, attunement; arrangement, understanding, settlement.
  69. unilateral (adjective) – relating to a method of taking decisions (particularly on international relations) by a state (country) individually without considering other states (countries). In general, it is relating to the decision taken individually without consulting with the others concerned.
  70. for instance (phrase) – as an example.
  71. downgrade (verb) – lower in status/rank/importance, demote.
  72. full-fledged/fully fledged (adjective) – fully established.
  73. The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) Act (noun) – The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2021 was introduced in Lok Sabha on March 15, 2021.  The Bill amends the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi Act, 1991.  The Act provides a framework for the functioning of the Legislative Assembly and the government of the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi.  The Bill amends certain powers and responsibilities of the Legislative Assembly and the Lieutenant Governor.
  74. blatant (adjective) – evident, flagrant/glaring, obvious.
  75. undermine (verb) – weaken, subvert, sabotage, damage.
  76. maturity (noun) – sense of responsibility, level-headedness, practicality.
  77. divergence (noun) – difference, dissimilarity, variance, departure.
  78. trajectory (noun) – track/course, route, path, direction, approach.
  79. liberalisation (noun) – removal or loosening of restrictions on something, typically an economic or political system.
  80. convergence (noun) – junction, intersection, interchange, meeting point, confluence.
  81. fragility (noun) – vulnerability, riskiness, unreliability.
  82. glimpse (noun) – brief look, glance, sight.
  83. tension (noun) – strained relations; strain, stress, pressure, unease.
  84. Finance Commission (FC) (noun) – It is a Constitutionally mandated body that is at the centre of fiscal federalism. Set up under Article 280 of the Constitution of India, its core responsibility is to evaluate the state of finances of the Union and State Governments, recommend the sharing of taxes between them, lay down the principles determining the distribution of these taxes among States. The first Finance Commission was set up in 1951 and there have been fifteen so far.
  85. Fifteenth Finance Commission (FC-15) (noun) – The Fifteenth Finance Commission was constituted on 27 November 2017 against the backdrop of the abolition of the Planning Commission (as also of the distinction between Plan and non-Plan expenditure) and the introduction of the goods and services tax (GST), which has fundamentally redefined federal fiscal relations. It is constituted to give recommendations for devolution of taxes and other fiscal matters for five fiscal years, commencing 01.04.2020.
  86. mandate (verb) – instruct, direct, order, require; make mandatory.
  87. census (noun) – an official survey, particularly of a population.
  88. penalise (verb) – punish, discipline, mete out punishment to, sentence.
  89. pool (noun) – fund, reserve.
  90. deftly (adverb) – cleverly, proficiently, skillfully.
  91. inter- (prefix) – between.
  92. delimitation (noun) – an act of fixing boundary or limits.
  93. notwithstanding (conjunction) – although, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, even though.
  94. impatience (noun) – frustration, agitation, nervousness; irritability, intolerance, dissatisfaction, displeasure. 
  95. homogenise (verb) – unite, make uniform/similar, merge.
  96. alienation (noun) – isolation, detachment, estrangement/separation.
  97. Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) (noun) – The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 seeks to grant citizenship to religious minorities of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, who had to flee their homeland facing persecution. The six minority groups that have been specifically identified are Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Buddhists, Christians, and Parsis.
  98. sub-nationalism (noun) – support for interests of a particular region within a nation/country.
  99. fiscal position (noun) – the fiscal position of a government refers to how it’s level of spending and taxation impact on aggregate demand and economic growth.
  100. on the brink of (phrase) – on the edge/verge of difficult/dangerous situation; at a crucial or critical point.
  101. squeeze (verb) – impede, restrict, inhibit, obstruct, limit.
  102. cess (noun) – a form of tax charged/levied over and above the base tax liability of a taxpayer. A cess is usually imposed additionally when the state or the central government looks to raise funds for specific purposes.
  103. insistence (noun) – assertion, declaration, statement, announcement, pronouncement, assurance, affirmation, avowal, swearing.
  104. compensation (noun) – payment, repayment, settlement (for loss/damage).
  105. GST Compensation (noun) – Under the GST law (In India), state governments are guaranteed full compensation for any revenue loss for the first five years after the introduction of the goods and services tax (GST) in July 2017. The compensation is a gap between actual revenue collected and projected revenue.
  106. pandemic-induced (adjective) – caused/produced by the pandemic.
  107. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  108. exaggerate (verb) – magnify, amplify, inflate.
  109. sentiment (noun) – feeling, thought, view, opinion.
  110. isolationist (noun) – a person who believes in or advocates isolation (a policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries).
  111. compromise (noun) – agreement, understanding, settlement.
  112. collective (adjective) – combined, united/joint, cooperative (by all people as a group).
  113. seed (noun) – genesis, source, origin, starting point, beginnings.
  114. necessity (noun) – (essential) requirement, prerequisite, indispensable thing.
  115. in the long term (phrase) – over a long period of time; in the future.
  116. are they up to the task? (phrase) – are they capable/competent enough to complete the job?


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Fresh stirrings on federalism as a new politics) – Jul 07, 2021

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