The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021

When Dr. Vinod K. Paul, NITI Aayog Member (Health), asserted last week that it was the lack of centralisation that has led to poor management of the ongoing COVID-19 vaccination drive,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021:

  1. adverse (adjective) – dangerous, harmful, detrimental, unhealthy; unfavourable, disadvantageous, bad.
  2. federalism/federal framework/system (noun) – a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
  3. imperil (verb) – endanger, jeopardize, put in danger.
  4. federal (adjective) – relating to a system of government in which establishments such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
  5. preserve (verb) – sustain, conserve, protect, maintain, keep up, continue, uphold.
  6. plural (adjective) – relating to a system in which people co-exist in harmony irrespective of various differences.
  7. in terms of (phrase) – with regard to, regarding/concerning, in connection with.
  8. NITI Aayog (noun) – The National Institution for Transforming India, also called NITI Aayog, was formed via a resolution of the Union Cabinet on January 1, 2015. NITI Aayog is the premier policy ‘Think Tank’ of the Government of India, providing both directional and policy inputs. (Think tank is a panel of experts who provide advice and ideas on political, social or economic issues).
  9. assert (verb) – declare, announce, pronounce, state.
  10. centralisation (noun) – the process of having functions, powers, people or things only in a central location or authority.
  11. vaccination (noun) – treatment with a vaccine to protect against a particular disease; immunization.
  12. drive (noun) – campaign, movement, effort, push.
  13. join issue with (phrase) – to disagree with someone or something.
  14. go by (phrasal verb) – follow, observe something.
  15. assertion (noun) – declaration, statement, announcement, claim, affirmation.
  16. back (verb) – support, advocate, promote, uphold, champion.
  17. misread (verb) – get wrong, judge/interpret incorrectly.
  18. subtext (noun) – implicit/indirect meaning.
  19. lie within (phrase) – to exist in something.
  20. contribute to (verb) – play a part in, be instrumental in, make for, lead to, cause.
  21. narrative (noun) – a representation of a particular situation; portrayal/account.
  22. sit well with (phrase) – to be agreeable to something.
  23. incursion (noun) – intrusion, trespass, infiltration, obtrusion; intervention, interference, involvement.
  24. appeal (noun) – call.
  25. nation-state (noun) – a state (country) in which a great majority shares the same culture and is conscious of it. The nation-state is an ideal in which cultural boundaries match up with political boundaries. An independent state consists of people from one particular national group.
  26. rather than (phrase) – instead of.
  27. encroachment (noun) – intrusion into, trespass on, invasion of.
  28. to be sure (phrase) – certainly, surely; used to highlight something.
  29. erode (verb) – (gradually) undermine, weaken, spoil, deteriorate, destroy.
  30. dismiss (verb) – dissolve, disband, discharge, oust, topple, unseat.
  31. intimidate (verb) – frighten, threaten, overawe, browbeat.
  32. The Emergency (noun) – In India, “The Emergency” refers to a 21-month period from 1975 to 1977 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had a state of emergency declared across the country. Officially issued by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed under Article 352 of the Constitution because of the prevailing “internal disturbance”, the Emergency was in effect from 25 June 1975 until its withdrawal on 21 March 1977.  
  33. Concurrent List (noun) – the list which includes the power to be considered by both the union and state government (as given in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India).
  34. State List (noun) – it includes subjects that give powers to the state governments. (as given in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India, the legislative section is divided into three lists: the Union List, State List and Concurrent List).
  35. Central List (noun) – it includes subjects that give powers to the central government. (as given in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India, the legislative section is divided into three lists: the Union List, State List and Concurrent List).
  36. systemic (adjective) – affecting all parts in a system; constructional, organizational, structural.
  37. at the risk of repetition (phrase) – a phrase used in a situation where something have already been said and acknowledged and even though it is said again”.
  38. welfare (noun) – social security, public assistance, state benefit.
  39. intervention (noun) – the process of intervening in something; involvement, interference.
  40. incur (verb) – induce, cause, give rise to, bring on.
  41. lackadaisical (adjective) – careless, casual, uncaring, uninterested, lazy.
  42. compensation (noun) – payment, repayment, settlement (for loss/damage).
  43. GST Compensation (noun) – Under the GST law (In India), state governments are guaranteed full compensation for any revenue loss for the first five years after the introduction of the goods and services tax (GST) in July 2017. The compensation is a gap between actual revenue collected and projected revenue.
  44. on the other hand (phrase) – as an alternative, or, as another option, as a substitute.
  45. encroach (verb) – intrude, trespass, impinge, infiltrate, violate, interfere with.
  46. public expenditure/spending or government expenditure/spending (noun) – money spent by the government.
  47. intensification (noun) – escalation, stepping up, increase, strengthening, reinforcement.
  48. align (with) (verb) – join up with, form an alliance with, link up with, combine with.
  49. dispensation (noun) – government, administration, system.
  50. centralise (verb) – concentrate, bring under one roof, consolidate (under a single authority).
  51. in conjunction (phrase) – together.
  52. indicative (adjective) – expressive, suggestive, representative, symbolic.
  53. consolidation (noun) – the process of combining a number of things into a single more effective one; unification.
  54. at the expense of (phrase) – at the cost of, at the loss of; at the sacrifice of.
  55. on the one hand (phrase) – it is used to introduce the first of two contrasting different, points, facts, or ways of looking at something.  It is always followed later by “on the other hand” or ‘on the other’.
  56. insulate (verb) – protect, safeguard, shield.
  57. Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) (noun) – a proposed agreement between the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its free trade agreement (FTA) partners. The pact aims to cover trade in goods and services, intellectual property, etc.
  58. recalibration (noun) – reevaluation, reassessment, reorganization/revamp.
  59. entrepreneur (noun) – businessman, businesswoman, business person.
  60. entrepreneurship (noun) – the process/activity of setting up a business.
  61. rent-seeking (noun) – a behavior that does not create economic gains for society, instead it helps a company/organisation/individual using their resources to get economic gain.
  62. in parallel to (phrase) – happening at same time and with a connection.
  63. rely on (phrasal verb) – depend on; resort to, have recourse to.
  64. rent-thick sectors (noun) – the industries that have access to natural resources and depend upon the government for licenses to trade (e.g.  real estate, infrastructure, construction, mining, telecom, cement, and media).
  65. mining (noun) – the extraction of valuable minerals (e.g. iron ore) or other geological materials (e.g. coal) from the Earth.
  66. curtail (verb) – decrease, lessen, reduce, restrict, limit.
  67. level against (verb) – direct (an accusation).
  68. allegation (noun) – charge, accusation, indictment.
  69. central agencies (plural noun) – the central agencies are organizations in the executive branch that co-ordinate the activities of, and provide guidance to the operating ministries and agencies; e.g. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Directorate of Enforcement (ED), Income Tax Department (IT) and etc.
  70. keep someone/something in check (phrase) – control, curb, restrain, hold back, keep under control.
  71. avenue (noun) – way, method, direction, approach.
  72. accumulation (noun) – amassing, gathering, stockpiling, collection.
  73. institutional (adjective) – of institutions.  
  74. transgression (noun) – infringement, contravention, breach, violation, overstepping.
  75. executive (noun) – relating to a branch of government that enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary.
  76. legislative (adjective) – relating to legislation (the power to make laws); law-making, policy-making.
  77. aggression (noun) – attack, encroachment, offence, invasion, infringement.
  78. lever (noun) – handle, grip.
  79. Enforcement Directorate (ED) (noun) – Directorate of Enforcement is a specialized financial investigation agency under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, Government of India. It was established in the year 1956 with its Headquarters at New Delhi. It is responsible for enforcement of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA) (Civil Law) and certain provisions under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA) (Criminal Law).
  80. National Investigation Agency (NIA) (noun) – The National Investigation Agency is a central agency established by the Indian Government to combat terror in India. It is functioning as the Central Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency in the country. The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is created following the terror attack in Mumbai on December 26, 2008. It came into being on December 31, 2008, with the passage of the NIA Act of 2008.
  81. untouched (adjective) – unaffected, unchanged, uninfluenced.
  82. meddle (verb) – interfere, intrude, intervene.
  83. bypass (verb) – circumvent, avoid, sidestep, evade, dodge.
  84. dynamic (noun) – a system/process distinguished by constant change.
  85. primarily (adverb) – basically, especially, particularly.
  86. National Education Policy (NEP) (noun) – The National Education Policy, 2020 is meant to provide an overarching vision and comprehensive framework for both school and higher education across the country. It is only a policy, not a law; implementation of its proposals depends on further regulations by both States and the Centre as education is a concurrent subject.
  87. faculty (noun) – a teaching (or research) staff (in a university, college, or school).
  88. majoritarian (adjective) – relating to a philosophy that states that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language, social class, or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy (priority) in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society.
  89. signatory (noun) – the person who signed an official document/agreement.
  90. subvert (verb) – undermine, weaken, impair, damage.
  91. affirmative action (noun) – it means positive steps taken to increase the representation of (women and) minorities in areas of employment, education, and culture from which they have been historically excluded.
  92. lockdown (noun) – an emergency protocol implemented by the authorities that prevents people from leaving from a place; An extended state of confinement/encirclement/isolation of a person by the authority.
  93. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  94. at a disadvantage (phrase) – in an unfavourable situation/position. 
  95. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  96. differential (adjective) – different, dissimilar.
  97. procure (verb) – buy, purchase.
  98. deprive of (verb) – dispossess, strip of, deny, prevent from having.
  99. lie in (phrasal verb) – be present, exist.
  100. diversity (noun) – the state/condition of having many different types of something; variety, variation, difference, range.
  101. identity (noun) – a social category, a set of persons marked by a label and distinguished by rules deciding membership and (alleged) characteristic features or attributes; individuality, character, originality.
  102. homogenization (noun) – the process of making things uniform/similar.
  103. interpret (verb) – understand, construe, take, read, see, regard.
  104. belong to (verb) – be affiliated to, be associated with, be connected to, be linked to.
  105. pan- (combining form) – all inclusive of, all, of everything.
  106. anti-Vedic (adjective) – relating to Anti-Brahminism.
  107. mainstream (verb) – bring something into the mianstream (something (certain beliefs/ideas/activities) which are accepted or recognized by most people as a normal or typical).
  108. erosion (noun) – disintegration, deterioration, weakening.
  109. amount to (verb) – be equal to, be equivalent to, represent.
  110. in the absence of (phrase) – without.
  111. fiscal (adjective) – financial.
  112. inherently (adverb) – essentially, fundamentally, basically, primarily, naturally.
  113. bias (verb) – prejudice, influence, sway; incline, bend.
  114. vest (verb) – entrust to, invest in, bestow on, confer on, grant to, give to.
  115. residuary power (noun) – residuary power is the power which is neither prohibited or explicitly given by law to any organ of government.
  116. seldom (adverb) – hardly, rarely, almost never.
  117. look beyond (phrase) – to look forward to a time in the future after some situation.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purposes only and they may vary in a different context.  
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021
The Hindu Lead Article (Adverse changes, federalism imperilled) – Jun 03, 2021

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