The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020

The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020

The global coronavirus pandemic is a natural, albeit brutal experiment.  For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020.

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This preview is provided here with permission.  

Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020:

  1. social democracy (noun) – a democratic state which encompasses ideologies from both socialism & capitalism. Freedom, equality, justice and solidarity are the core values of social democracy.
  2. dividend (noun) – benefit, advantage, gain.
  3. build on (phrasal verb) – develop, expand/enlarge on; enhance.
  4. legacy (noun) – effect/outcome (something received from a predecessor or from the past).
  5. egalitarianism (noun) – equalitarianism; An idea/belief that all people are equal and should have the same rights and opportunities.
  6. coronavirus (CoV)(noun) – a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death. (Courtesy: WHO)
  7. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  8. albeit (conjunction) – though, even though, however.
  9. inequality (noun) – Inequality is simply defined as “the state of not being equal, especially in status, rights and opportunities; imbalance, unevenness, disproportion, disparity.
  10. none more so that/than (phrase) – it refers to something that was mentioned previously.
  11. lockdown (noun) – an emergency protocol implemented by the authorities that prevents people from leaving from a place; An extended state of confinement/encirclement/isolation of a person by the authority.
  12. consequence (noun) – outcome, ramification, repercussion.
  13. flattening the curve (phrase) – In epidemiology, the idea of slowing a virus’ spread so that fewer people need to seek treatment at any given time is known as “flattening the curve”.
  14. mobility (noun) – transportability.
  15. prime (verb) – brief, inform, advise, notify.
  16. hotspot (noun) – a place of significant activity.
  17. roll out (phrasal verb) – launch, introduce, organize, inaugurate (something officially).
  18. comprehensive (adjective) – all-inclusive, complete, full.
  19. stand out (phrasal verb) – be noticeable, be prominent, be distinctive; attract attention.
  20. herald (verb) – signal, indicate, foretell; acclaim.
  21. exceptionalism (noun) – the state of being special, exceptional or unique.
  22. tame (verb) – control, mitigate, overcome, suppress.
  23. build out (phrasal verb) – grow, develop, expand something.
  24. tailored (adjective) – customized.
  25. safety net (noun) – something which gives protection against misfortune or difficulty.
  26. iterated (adjective) – rehearsed, repeated, recapitulated.
  27. mobilisation (noun) – the act of bringing people/resources together for a particular cause.
  28. forge (verb) – create, establish, set up.
  29. robust (adjective) – strong, powerful.
  30. underscore (verb) – underline, emphasize, highlight.
  31. comparative advantage (noun) – an economy’s ability to produce goods or services for a lower opportunity cost than others.
  32. to begin with (phrase) – at first, at the outset, at the beginning.
  33. encompass (verb) – include, subsume, incorporate.
  34. social pact (noun) – social contract; an unofficial political agreement concluded between corporate, labour, and civil service representatives in order to lay the basis for a political compromise/understanding.
  35. broad-based (adjective) – wide-ranging, general.
  36. recurrent (adjective) – recurring, regular, periodic, happening regularly.
  37. peasant (noun) – agricultural worker, small farmer.
  38. literacy (noun) – the ability to read and write.
  39. decentralise (verb) –transfer of the power/control (of a department/organisation/government) from a single place to other locations.
  40. nurture (verb) – encourage, promote, foster.
  41. incrementally (adverb) – in an incremental way; by small additions.
  42. institutional capacity (noun) – the capability of an institution to set and achieve social and economic goals, through knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions.
  43. drive (by) (verb) – force, impel, press, prompt.
  44. in turn (phrase) – in succession, successively, sequentially.
  45. reinforce (verb) – strengthen, bolster up; augment, increase.
  46. vibrant (adjective) – lively, full of life, energetic, dynamic.
  47. accountability (noun) – responsibility, liability, answerability.
  48. front-line (adjective) – relating to a staff/employee who deals directly with the customers.
  49. state actor (noun) – a person who is acting on behalf of a governmental body.
  50. regardless of (adverb) – irrespective ofnotwithstanding, in spite of.
  51. fuel (verb) – stimulate, encourage, intensify (an emotion).
  52. empower (verb) – authorize, allow, entitle.
  53. tie into (phrasal verb) – get to work on vigorously.
  54. deep democracy (noun) – an organizing principle based on the transformation of separation to interconnectedness in the civic arena. At its essence, deep democracy is the inner experience
    of interconnectedness.
  55. generalized (adjective) – not specific, used generally.
  56. on balance (phrase) – overall, all in all, all things considered.
  57. right-bearing (adjective) – (of citizen) withdrawn behind his/her private interests and whims and separated from the community.
  58. built-up (adjective) – increasing in intensity over a period of time.
  59. cascading crisis/effect (noun) – an inevitable and sometimes unforeseen chain of events due to an act affecting a system.
  60. COVID-19 (noun) – coronavirus disease 2019.
  61. rely on (phrasal verb) – depend on; resort to, have recourse to.
  62. fragile (adjective) – weak, shaky/risky, unreliable, feeble/unsound.
  63. societal (adjective) – general, communal, collective, social.
  64. jurisdiction (noun) – territory, region, zone/area.
  65. comply (verb) – adhere to, conform to, abide by, respect.
  66. no less (phrase) – used to mention often ironically that something is impressive.
  67. discriminate (verb) – differentiate, distinguish, discern a difference.
  68. destigmatize (verb) – remove stigma (shame/disgrace).
  69. leverage (verb) – use, make use of, utilize (to maximum gain).
  70. provision (noun) – supplying, providing, furnishing.
  71. make sense (phrase) – be accepted, be credible.
  72. chaos (noun) – disorder, turmoil, mayhem/disruption.
  73. expose (verb) – reveal, uncover, lay bare.
  74. for-profit (adjective) – lucrative, moneymaking, profitable/remunerative.
  75. outset (noun) – beginning, start.
  76. lay emphasis on (phrase) – to emphasize/highlight something.
  77. first responder/front line worker (noun) – a person who is among the first to arrive and provide assistance at the scene of an emergency. First/front line workers/responders typically include paramedics, emergency medical technicians, police officers, firefighters, sanitary workers & etc,.
  78. mobilise (verb) – organize, deploy, galvanize/encourage, call up, bring into play.
  79. call on (phrasal verb) – appeal to, demand/ask, request.
  80. embed (verb) – fix/root.
  81. empowerment (noun) – accreditation, authorization, validation.
  82. case in point (phrase) – example, instance, sample.
  83. contact tracing (noun) – it is defined as the identification and followup of persons who may have come into contact with a person infected with the virus.
  84. infamous (adjective) – well known, ill-famed, of ill-repute.
  85. the last-mile (noun) – it refers to delivering a product/service to the customer at their home.
  86. pay off (phrasal verb) – be successful, succeed, be effective, get results.
  87. focalise (verb) – focus (something).
  88. containment (noun) – an act of keeping something (harmful) under control (it means quickly identifying cases of coronavirus through testing, placing infected individuals in isolation, tracking who infected persons might have been in contact with and potentially quarantining those who came into contact with infection so that the disease doesn’t continue to spread).
  89. array (noun) – display, range; arrangement.
  90. compliance (noun) – conformity, observation, adherence.
  91. elicit (verb) – obtain, bring forth/bring out, draw out.
  92. give up (phrasal verb) – abandon, forgo, renounce.
  93. going forward (phrase) – in the future.
  94. point to (verb) – indicate, suggest, signal/signify.
  95. lay bare (phrasal verb) – reveal, expose, disclose.
  96. authoritarian (adjective) – oppressive, dictatorial, totalitarian.
  97. temptation (noun) – desire, urge, impulse/inclination.
  98. irresistible (adjective) – uncontrollable, unavoidable, unpreventable.
  99. usurp (verb) – take over, appropriate, seize.
  100. exploit (verb) – take advantage of, make use of, utilize.
  101. silence (verb) – suppress, quieten, stop.
  102. resolve (noun) – decision, resolution, commitment.
  103. compassion (noun) – concern, consideration, humanity.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020:

The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020

The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020

The Hindu Lead Article (A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala) – Apr 18, 2020

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