The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020

The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020

Over the initial phase of the national lockdown (March 24 to April 14), India reported a 20-fold increase in confirmed SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 cases (468 to >10,000),… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020:

  1. shot (noun) – injection, inoculation (of a vaccine/drug). 
  2. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  3. social vaccine (noun) – a metaphor (symbolic thing) for a series of social and behavioural measures that governments can use to raise public consciousness about unhealthy situations through social mobilisation.
  4. societal (adjective) – general, communal, collective, social.
  5. devastating (adjective) – destructive, ruinous, disastrous, catastrophic.
  6. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  7. lockdown (noun) – an emergency protocol implemented by the authorities that prevents people from leaving from a place; An extended state of confinement/encirclement/isolation of a person by the authority.
  8. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  9. COVID-19 (noun) – coronavirus disease 2019.
  10. account for (phrasal verb) – constitute, make up, comprise, form.
  11. case-fatality rate/ratio (noun) – in epidemiology, the proportion of people who die from a particular disease compared to all individuals diagnosed with the disease over a certain period of time.
  12. relative merits (noun) – it is used to determine the benefits of two opposing choices or options.
  13. mitigation (noun) – alleviation, reduction; lessening.
  14. flattening the curve (phrase) – In epidemiology, the idea of slowing a virus’ spread so that fewer people need to seek treatment at any given time is known as “flattening the curve”.
  15. herd immunity (noun) – it refers to a means (ways) of protecting a whole community from disease by immunizing a critical mass of its populace (population). It is also defined as a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population are immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
  16. irrelevant (adjective) – immaterial, unrelated, not germane.
  17. imply (verb) – say indirectly, suggest, hint.
  18. transmission chain (noun) – the act or process by which something is spread or passed from one person or thing to another.
  19. asymptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with no symptoms.
  20. symptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with symptoms.
  21. inadvertently (adverb) – accidentally, unintentionally, mistakenly, without intention.
  22. employ (verb) – use, utilize, make use of.
  23. hybrid (adjective) – constituting/having different elements.
  24. dire (adjective) – terrible/awful, appalling, distressing.
  25. tragedy (noun) – an extremely sad event or situation; disaster, calamity, catastrophe.
  26. play out (phrasal verb) – happen, occur, take place.
  27. prolonged (adjective) – lengthy, extended, protracted.
  28. mitigate (verb) – reduce, lessen, decrease, make less severe.
  29. stimulate (verb) – prompt, encourage, trigger.
  30. assert (verb) – declare, announce, state (confidently).
  31. social/physical distancing (noun) – a term means actively avoiding crowded public places, is a key element in decreasing the rapid spread of COVID-19. This is an effort intended to limit exposure by reducing face-to-face contact and preventing spread among people in community settings.
  32. far (adverb) – much.
  33. implications (noun) – consequence/outcome, ramification, repercussion.
  34. metaphor (noun) – figure of speech, figurative expression, symbolic thing.
  35. consciousness (noun) – awareness, knowledge, attention/observation.
  36. mobilisation (noun) – the act of bringing people/resources together for a particular cause.
  37. empower (verb) – authorize, allow, entitle.
  38. resilience (noun) – strength, toughness; the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties.
  39. foster (verb) – encourage, promote, develop.
  40. advocacy (noun) – backing, supporting, endorsing.
  41. political will (noun) – political intention/desire (to complete a scheme/project even if it is not admired/welcomed in the beginning).
  42. accountable (adjective) – responsible, liable, answerable.
  43. address (verb) – tackle, deal with, attend to, try to sort out.
  44. determinant (noun) – factor, issue, concern.
  45. regulatory (adjective) – organizational, governmental.
  46. mechanism (noun) – procedure, process, method/technique.
  47. health equity (noun) – “Health equity” or “equity in health” implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential (and that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential) regardless of demographic, social, economic or geographic strata (level/class/rank/echelon).  (Courtesy: WHO)
  48. vulnerability (noun) – weakness/defencelessness, frailty, susceptibility.
  49. dissemination (noun) – spreading, circulation, distribution.
  50. uptake (noun) – the action of taking up or absorbing something given.
  51. disseminate (verb) – spread, circulate, propagate.
  52. means (noun) – method, way, procedure.
  53. attitudinal (adjective) – relating to attitudes.
  54. supplement (verb) – augment, increase, add to, boost.
  55. incidence (noun) – refers to the number of new cases that develop in a given period of time whereas “prevalence” refers to the number of cases of a disease that are present in a particular population at a given time.
  56. antiretroviral (adjective) – relating to the drugs that suppress/stop a retrovirus like HIV. (retrovirus is a type of virus that uses RNA as its genetic material).
  57. viral load (noun) – the number of viral particles found in each millilitre of blood volume.
  58. zoonotic (adjective) – relating to a disease that can be transmitted from animals to people.
  59. diagnosis (noun) – identification, recognition, detection (of an illness/disease from its signs and symptoms).
  60. contagion (noun) – the spreading of a dangerous disease.
  61. render (verb) – make, cause to be, cause to become.
  62. stigma (noun) – shame, disgrace, dishonour.
  63. discrimination (noun) – prejudice, intolerance, inequity, unfairness.
  64. criminalise (verb) – make something (an activity) illegal.
  65. conspiracy theory (noun) – an explanation of an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy by evil, criminal and powerful actors, often political in motivation, when other explanations are more probable (likely to happen/anticipated).
  66. remedy (noun) – solution, answer, antidote/panacea.
  67. propagate (verb) – spread, promulgate, circulate, transmit.
  68. preparedness (noun) – readiness, watchfulness/attentiveness; precaution.
  69. starkly (adverb) – sharply, evidently, clearly/strikingly.
  70. expose (verb) – reveal, disclose, exhibit.
  71. centre on (verb) – focus, concentrate, pivot, be based.
  72. apparently (adverb) – seemingly, evidently, it appears that.
  73. predominantly (adverb) – mainly, mostly, commonly.
  74. intravenous (adjective) – taking place/administered within veins.
  75. peer-pressure (noun) – social pressure; it is the direct influence/pressure on individual by his/her peers (the people of the same age).
  76. prevailing (adjective) – existing; current.
  77. tacit (adjective) – silent, implicit, unexpressed.
  78. preclude (verb) – prevent, prohibit, block/exclude.
  79. pioneer (verb) – develop, introduce, create, evolve.
  80. humour (noun) – funniness, comical aspect, witty remarks, jokes.
  81. defuse (verb) – reduce, lessen/diminish, ease/mitigate.
  82. taboo (noun) – a prohibition of social actions based on religious, social, cultural (false) beliefs that performing such actions is either too scared, or too dangerous for the human race; prohibition, ban, non-acceptance.
  83. disinfection (noun) – the process of killing (inactivating) harmful bacteria, virus and other microorganisms (pathogenic) by various agents such as chemicals, heat & etc,.
  84. facilitator (noun) – a person who makes an action easier.
  85. coercive (adjective) – authoritarian, overbearing/tough/harsh, high-handed.
  86. punitive (adjective) – disciplinary, corrective, retributive.
  87. invariably (adverb) – always, every time/each time; habitually/inevitably.
  88. counter-productive (adjective) – harmful, damaging, dangerous/destructive.
  89. invest in (verb) – confer on, grant to, vest in, entrust to (a right or power).
  90. scale-up (verb) – increase.
  91. vulnerable (adjective) – relating to a weak/neglected person who is in need of special care/support; at risk, unsafe, easily affected by.
  92. personal protective equipment (PPE) (noun) – safety gear; protective clothing, helmets, masks or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury/disease.
  93. first responder/front line worker (noun) – a person who is among the first to arrive and provide assistance at the scene of an emergency. First/front line workers/responders typically include paramedics, emergency medical technicians, police officers, firefighters, sanitary workers & etc,.
  94. sanitation (noun) – it generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces (Courtesy: WHO).
  95. embrace (verb) – welcome, accept, adapt, take up.
  96. efficacy (noun) – effectiveness, efficiency, power/ability to give estimated results.
  97. influenza (noun) – it is commonly known as “the flu”, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
  98. panacea (noun) – perfect solution, universal cure, cure for all, sovereign remedy.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020:

The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020 The Hindu Lead Article (A shot of hope with a game changing vaccine) – Apr 20, 2020

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