The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021

As the country prepares to enter a new financial year after an ominous and gloomy 2020-21, there are great expectations about green shoots and the shape of the economic recovery. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021:

  1. blueprint (noun) – model, plan, guide, template, framework.
  2. alarming (adjective) – worrying, disturbing, shocking/distressing.
  3. inequality (noun) – Inequality is simply defined as “the state of not being equal, especially in status, rights and opportunities; imbalance, unevenness, disproportion, disparity.
  4. failing (adjective) – collapsing, foundering, breaking down.
  5. loom (verb) – emerge, appear, become visible, take a threatening shape.
  6. loom large (phrase) – be imminent/close, about to happen (and something which has a lot of importance/attention).
  7. ominous (adjective) – threatening, menacing, inauspicious, unpromising, unfavourable.
  8. gloomy (adjective) – dismal, disappointing, unfavourable, hopeless.
  9. green shoots (noun) – signs of (economic) recovery & growth, especially after a recession/downturn.
  10. wreak havoc (phrase) – cause/inflict a massive damage.
  11. novel coronavirus (nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (noun) – a new strain (type/variety) coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. (Courtesy: WHO)
  12. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.
  13. livelihood (noun) – means of making a living with the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing); means of support, subsistence, source of income.
  14. deep (adjective) – profound, intense, extreme.
  15. enormous (adjective) – huge, very large, massive.
  16. lockdown (noun) – an emergency protocol implemented by the authorities that prevents people from leaving from a place; An extended state of confinement/encirclement/isolation of a person by the authority.
  17. headline (noun as modifier) – pronounced, uncommon, unusual, particular, exceptional.
  18. macroeconomic (adjective) – relating to the branch of economics concerned with large-scale factors (interest rates/national productivity).
  19. Gross domestic product (GDP) (noun) – a measure of economic activity in a country. It is the total value of a country’s annual output of goods and service.
  20. stock market (noun) – equity market, share market, a stock exchange. It is where traders buy and sell shares of companies on a public exchange.
  21. indices plural of index (noun) – indicator, guide, mark, measure.
  22. rupture (verb) – sever, break, cut off, break off, disrupt.
  23. fabric (noun) – the basic/fundamental structure.
  24. exacerbate (verb) – intensify, increase, heighten, aggravate, worsen, compound.
  25. the haves and the have-nots (phrase) – very rich and very poor people.
  26. scar (verb) – mark, lasting effect (of trauma, damage, shock, injury, suffering, upset).
  27. remedy (verb) – rectify, solve, fix, sort out.
  28. context (noun) – situation; circumstances, conditions, state of affairs.
  29. onslaught (noun) – attack, incursion, invasion.
  30. devastate (verb) – destroy, ruin, wreak havoc on, demolish.
  31. migrant (noun) – a person who moves from one region to another – either within a country or across national borders in order to find work or better living conditions.
  32. informal/unorganized sector (noun) – informal economy, grey economy; it is the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government.
  33. formal sector/organised sector (noun) – formal economy; it is the part of an economy that is taxed, or monitored by any form of government.
  34. workforce (noun) – workers, employees.
  35. generous (adjective) – open-handed, free-handed, bountiful, large, huge.
  36. fiscal (adjective) – financial.
  37. stimulus package (noun) – an attempt by the government to boost economic growth and save their country from a financial crisis by involving tax cuts, lowering interest rates and increasing government spending.
  38. soothe (verb) – alleviate, ease, relieve, assuage, allay, mitigate.
  39. starving (adjective) – dying of hunger, faint from lack of food, deprived of food, undernourished.
  40. liquidity (noun) – the availability of liquid assets; liquidity means liquid assets; cash; (liquid asset is an asset which can be easily sold/converted into cash without losing its value); a measure of activity (i.e. the ability to buy or sell easily) in a market.
  41. laudable (adjective) – praiseworthy, noteworthy, commendable, admirable.
  42. telling (adjective) – striking, revealing; significant, important.
  43. desperation (noun) – hopelessness, despair, distress.
  44. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005 (noun) – an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘right to work’. It aims to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
  45. mock (verb) – laugh at, tease, deride, make a monkey of.
  46. safety net (noun) – something which gives protection against misfortune or difficulty.
  47. household (noun) – family, house.
  48. ask (for) (verb) – request, demand, appeal to, apply to.
  49. optimism (noun) – hopefulness, hope, confidence, positive attitude, buoyancy.
  50. hollow (adjective) – meaningless, empty, valueless, worthless, useless, pointless.
  51. subsistence wage (noun) – the minimum wage upon which a worker’s family can survive.
  52. let alone (phrase) – to say nothing of; not to mention.
  53. ‘V’ shaped economic recovery (noun) – the situation in which the economy quickly recoups lost ground and gets back to the normal growth trend-line. A sharp fall in economic activity followed by a dramatic rise.
  54. exuberant (adjective) – excited, enthusiastic, energetic.
  55. pump into (phrasal verb) – invest a lot of money in something.
  56. exuberance (noun) – excitement, elation, enthusiasm, cheerfulness, buoyancy.
  57. alas (exclamation) – unluckily, sadly, regrettably, unhappily.
  58. accrue (verb) – accumulate, collect, amass, grow, increase, augment, be added.
  59. minuscule (adjective) – very small, insignificant, negligible.
  60. curative (adjective) – remedial, restorative, corrective.
  61. unintentionally (adverb) – coincidentally, unexpectedly, unconsciously.
  62. disparity (noun) – imbalance, inequality, variation.
  63. soaring (adjective) – increasing rapidly.
  64. supply shock (noun) – a sudden and unexpected change in a cost variable, such as oil prices, commodity prices or wages (or) an event that suddenly increases or decreases the supply of a commodity or service, or of commodities and services in general.
  65. inflation (noun) – simply meaning “cost of living”; increase of price level of goods & services and vice versa decrease of currency value.
  66. retail or consumer price index (CPI) inflation (noun) – it is a measure of the total inflation within an economy, including commodities such as food and energy prices. The CPI monitors retail prices at a certain level for a particular commodity. The change in the price index over a period of time is referred to as CPI-based inflation, or retail inflation.
  67. core inflation (noun) – it is a measure of the total inflation within an economy, excluding commodities such as food and energy prices (which change frequently).
  68. inevitably (adverb) – unavoidably, certainly, definitely.
  69. monetary policy (noun) – monetary policy refers to the use of monetary instruments under the control of the central bank to regulate magnitudes such as interest rates, money supply and availability of credit with a view to achieving the ultimate objective of economic policy. (Courtesy:
  70. slow down (phrasal verb) – reduce, lessen decrease (one’s activity).
  71. consequential (adjective) – important, significant, major.
  72. lacklustre (adjective) – dull, uninspired/uninteresting, mundane.
  73. precariously (adverb) – insecurely, unsafely, dangerously, uncertainly.
  74. poise (verb) – be suspended, hang in mid-air.
  75. deft (adjective) – skillful, expert, experienced, delicate.
  76. saviour (noun) – someone/something saving (people) from danger/difficulty; rescuer, liberator, deliverer.
  77. shoot oneself in the foot (phrase) – to do or say something that causes trouble/difficulty for oneself.
  78. substitution (noun) – replacement (import substitution means replacement of foreign imports with domestic production).
  79. Import substitution industrialization (ISI) (noun) – it is a trade and economic policy that advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
  80. quantitative restriction (noun) – specific limits on the quantity or value of goods that can be imported (or exported) during a specific time period.
  81. shunning (noun) – avoiding, evading, eschewing.
  82. predominant (adjective) – dominant, more powerful, most important, primary.
  83. slowdown (noun) – economic decline, recession, slump/depression.
  84. aversion (noun) – resistance, unwillingness, reluctance, avoidance; dislike, disinclination.
  85. underwhelm (verb) – not good enough, disappoint, be unsatisfactory, not exciting.
  86. cope with (verb) – deal withgrapple with, handle/manage.
  87. plunge (verb) – fall/drop, plummet, tumble, nosedive suddenly & uncontrollably.
  88. drop out (phrasal verb) – discontinue, end, stop, terminate.
  89. demographic (adjective) – relating to the statistical study/structure of populations, especially human beings.
  90. profile (noun) – description, summary of details (a record of a person’s characteristics, preferences, etc.).
  91. moratorium (noun) – a temporary suspension of an activity; embargo, ban, prohibition.
  92. Credit Guarantee Scheme (CGS) (noun) – Credit Guarantee Scheme (CGS) was launched to strengthen credit delivery system and to facilitate flow of credit to the MSE sector, create access to finance for unserved, under-served and underprivileged, making availability of finance from conventional lenders to new generation entrepreneurs.
  93. debt (noun) – liability, financial obligation, borrowed capital.
  94. besides (preposition/linking adverb) – in addition to, as well, apart from.
  95. catastrophe (noun) – disaster, calamity, mishap, crisis.
  96. demonetisation (noun) – the act of depriving a currency unit (note/coin) of its status as money.
  97. muddled (adjective) – confused, bewildered, perplexed.
  98. seek (verb) – try, attempt, aim.
  99. thrust (verb) – force, impose, push.
  100. ill-thought-out (adjective) – not carefully considered, not carefully planned, misconceived/badly planned.
  101. Farm Acts, 2000 (noun) – Farm Acts, 2000 refer to three agricultural bills passed by Indian Parliament in September 2020. The three acts are “The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020 (FPTC Act) allows farmers to sell their harvest outside the notified Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) mandis without paying any State taxes or fees”, “the Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020 facilitates contract farming and direct marketing”, and “the Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020 deregulates the production, storage, movement and sale of several major foodstuffs, including cereals, pulses, edible oils and onion, except in the case of extraordinary circumstances”.
  102. thus far (phrase) – until now, till date.
  103. wreak (verb) – cause, inflict, bring about (danger).
  104. produce (noun) – all agricultural products.
  105. procurement (noun) – the action of procuring/purchasing something.
  106. Minimum Support Price (MSP) (noun) – it is a form of market intervention by the Government of India to give guaranteed price and assured market to the farmers and protect them from the price fluctuations and market imperfections. The guaranteed price and assured market are expected to encourage higher investment and in adoption of modern farming practices.
  107. needy (adjective) – poor/poverty-stricken, underprivileged, impoverished.
  108. embark on (phrasal verb) – start, begin, initiate/commence.
  109. bleak (adjective) – unpromising, unfavourable, disadvantageous.
  110. have one’s work cut out (phrase) – be faced with a tough task/work.
  111. given (preposition) – considering, taking into account, bearing in mind.
  112. in contrast (phrase) – when compared to another.
  113. cut back (phrasal verb) – reduce, cut, decrease.
  114. unprecedented (adjective) – not done or experienced before.
  115. fiscal deficit (noun) – the difference between total expenditure and total income of the government.
  116. bound to (adjective) – certain/sure, very likely, guaranteed.
  117. non-negotiable (adjective) – inviolable, undebatable, unchallengeable.
  118. perilous (adjective) – dangerous, risky, precarious, insecure, life-threatening.
  119. unveil (verb) – present, disclose, make public.
  120. lacunae (plural of) lacuna (noun) – a gap/empty space; missing part of something.
  121. stern (adjective) – strict, severe, stringent, rigorous/tough.
  122. ramp up (phrasal verb) – increase (in amount or number).
  123. shore up (phrasal verb) – support, assist, prop up.
  124. preparedness (noun) – readiness.
  125. nominal (adjective) – minimal.
  126. bear/keep in mind (phrase) – take into account, consider.
  127. credible (adjective) – acceptable, reasonable, convincing.
  128. choke with (verb) – block, obstruct, prevent, inhibit, suffocate, stifle.
  129. non-performing assets (NPAs) (noun) – bad loans, troubled accounts, stressed loans; an account where principal and/or interest remains overdue for a period of time.
  130. consumption demand (noun) – the demand for goods and services by individuals and households in the economy.
  131. imply (verb) – say indirectly, suggest, indicate.
  132. pick up (phrasal verb) – improve, get better, recover, rally.
  133. a pick up (noun) – improvement, recovery.
  134. heavy lifting (noun) – difficult work.
  135. dismal (adjective) – bad, poor, dreadful, awful/terrible.
  136. government capital expenditure (noun) – the money spent by the government on the development of machinery, equipment, building, health facilities, education, etc.
  137. Nyuntam Aay Yojana/Minimum Income Support Programme (NYAY) (noun) – a proposed social welfare program by the Indian National Congress in its 2019 general election manifesto. It promised that the party, if voted to power in the 2019 Indian general election, would enact a law under which it would distribute cash to the bottom 20 percent of India’s families in terms of wealth, as a minimum guarantee programme.
  138. unconditional (adjective) – unquestioning, unrestricted, wholesale, wholehearted.
  139. alleviate (verb) – reduce, control, mitigate/moderate.
  140. misery (noun) – pain, grief, anguish, agony, distress, torment, suffering.
  141. at stake (phrase) – at issue, at risk; or in question.
  142. grim (adjective) – distressing, upsetting, worrying, unpleasant, dismal, awful.
  143. play fast and loose (phrase) – to act/perform something carelessly/irresponsibly.
  144. dire (adjective) – urgent, desperate, pressing, crying, serious.
  145. penchant (noun) – (strong) passion, liking, appetite, desire, preference.
  146. rash (adjective) – reckless, hasty, incautious, careless.
  147. due (adjective) – proper, correct, rightful, suitable, appropriate.
  148. for the sake of (phrase) – for the purpose of, in order to improve/achieve; in the interest of.
  149. steer (verb) – guide, conduct, direct/lead.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (A Budget blueprint for difficult times) – Jan 30, 2021

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