The Hindu Editorial (Shot in the arm) – Nov 18, 2020

The Hindu Editorial (Shot in the arm) – Nov 18, 2020

Close on the heels of the multinational, Pfizer, announcing promising results from its ongoing phase-3 trial of a potential COVID-19 vaccine,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s word list-1 for The Hindu Editorial (Shot in the arm) – Nov 18, 2020.

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Today’s word list-1 for The Hindu Editorial (Shot in the arm) – Nov 18, 2020:

  1. a shot in the arm (phrase) – (figuratively) boost, fillip, stimulus, impetus, encouragement; (literally) an injection of drugs.
  2. potential (adjective) – possible, likely, prospective, probable; developing.
  3. candidate vaccine or vaccine candidate (noun) – a “potential” vaccine prepared in the research and development (R&D) centres and it can be used in human clinical trials.
  4. hoop (noun) – ring, band, circle, round (number of tests/trials).
  5. at large (phrase) – as a whole, generally, extensively.
  6. close on the heels of (phrase) – close behind, soon after, immediately after, following closely.
  7. phase 3 trial (noun) – In phase 3 trial, the vaccine is given to thousands of people to confirm its safety – including rare side effects – and effectiveness. These trials involve a control group which is given a placebo.
  8. phase 2 trial (noun) – In phase 2 trial, the vaccine is given to hundreds of people so scientists can learn more about its safety and correct dosage.
  9. phase 1 trial (noun) – In phase 1 trial of clinical testing, the vaccine is given to a small group of people to determine whether it is safe and to learn more about the immune response it provokes.
  10. human trial (noun) – a type of research that studies new tests and treatments and evaluates their effects on human health outcomes; clinical trial.
  11. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  12. m-RNA technology (noun) – messenger RNA technology;  the set of instructions by which cells make all proteins and send them to various parts of the body. mRNA medicines take advantage of normal biological processes to express proteins and create a desired therapeutic effect.
  13. volunteer (noun) – participant.
  14. exclusively (adverb) – specially, particularly, only, purposefully.
  15. reveal (verb) – show, display, exhibit, disclose.
  16. placebo (noun) – it is an inactive substance (with no therapeutic effect) is given to one group of participants in a clinical trial, while the treatment (usually a drug or vaccine being tested) is given to another group.
  17. lead to (verb) – cause, result in, bring on, bring about.
  18. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (noun) – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the government agency responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medical products more effective, safer, and more affordable and by helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medical products and foods to maintain and improve their health.
  19. manifest (verb) – indicate, show, display, exhibit.
  20. efficacy (noun) – In medicine, the ability of an intervention (for example, a drug or surgery) to produce the desired beneficial effect; effectiveness, efficiency, power.
  21. curb (verb) – control, contain, restrict, limit.
  22. journal (noun) – periodical, publication, magazine, newsletter.
  23. imply (verb) – say indirectly, suggest, indicate.
  24. synthetic (adjective) – artificial, manufactured, simulated.
  25. machinery (noun) – system, apparatus, structure.
  26. replicate (verb) – reproduce.
  27. the odds (noun) – likelihood, probability, chances.
  28. adverse (adjective) – unfavourable, disadvantageous, bad.
  29. dose (noun) – an amount/quantity of something.
  30. scale up (phrasal verb) – increase (in size or number).
  31. mammalian (adjective) – relating to a mammal (a group of vertebrate animals and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young).
  32. con (noun) – disadvantage.
  33. sub-zero (adjective) – below zero, below freezing, icy, freezing, bitterly cold, frozen.
  34. optimism (noun) – hopefulness, hope, confidence, positive attitude, buoyancy.
  35. primarily (adverb) – basically, especially, particularly.
  36. unlike (preposition) – different from, dissimilar to, not like, as opposed to, in contrast to.
  37. coalition (noun) – alliance, union, partnership.
  38. epidemic (noun) – widespread disease/illness.
  39. preparedness (noun) – readiness.
  40. the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) (noun) – CEPI is a innovative global partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil society organisations. They are working together to accelerate the development of vaccines against emerging infectious diseases and enable equitable access to these vaccines for people during outbreaks.
  41. in line (phrase) – in queue.
  42. fraction (noun) – a (small) proportion/part/amount of something.
  43. ramp up (phrasal verb) – increase (in amount or number).
  44. stand to (phrasal verb) – be in a position, be ready (where one is likely to do something).
  45. significantly (adverb) – notably, importantly, appreciably.
  46. open the way (phrase) – pave the way, break ground, break the ice, remove an obstacle to allow advancement; permit, facilitate.
  47. implausible (adjective) – unlikely, doubtful, improbable.
  48. pandemic (noun) – the worldwide spread of a new disease; The illness spreads around the world and typically affects a large number of people across a wide area.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s word list-1 for The Hindu Editorial (Shot in the arm) – Nov 18, 2020:

The Hindu Editorial (Shot in the arm) – Nov 18, 2020 The Hindu Editorial (Shot in the arm) – Nov 18, 2020 The Hindu Editorial (Shot in the arm) – Nov 18, 2020

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