The Hindu Editorial (Dose of optimism) – Nov 11, 2020

The Hindu Editorial (Dose of optimism) – Nov 11, 2020

Multinational drug company Pfizer has announced promising results from its ongoing phase-3 trial of a potential COVID-19 vaccine. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s word list-2 for The Hindu Editorial (Dose of optimism) – Nov 11, 2020.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

Today’s word list-2 for The Hindu Editorial (Dose of optimism) – Nov 11, 2020:

  1. dose (noun) – an amount/quantity of something.
  2. optimism (noun) – hopefulness, hope, confidence, positive attitude, buoyancy.
  3. cold chain (noun) – a temperature-controlled supply chain. It is a kind of supply chain that specializes in the storage, transport, and preservation of cargo that needs to be maintained at a specific temperature or within an acceptable temperature range.
  4. infrastructure (noun) – structure, framework, mechanism.
  5. avail (verb) – use, utilize, take advantage of (an opportunity/resources).
  6. promising (adjective) – encouraging, favourable, hopeful.
  7. phase 3 trial (noun) – In phase 3 trial, the vaccine is given to thousands of people to confirm its safety – including rare side effects – and effectiveness. These trials involve a control group which is given a placebo.
  8. phase 2 trial (noun) – In phase 2 trial, the vaccine is given to hundreds of people so scientists can learn more about its safety and correct dosage.
  9. phase 1 trial (noun) – In phase 1 trial of clinical testing, the vaccine is given to a small group of people to determine whether it is safe and to learn more about the immune response it provokes.
  10. human trial (noun) – a type of research that studies new tests and treatments and evaluates their effects on human health outcomes; clinical trial.
  11. potential (adjective) – possible, likely, probable.
  12. candidate vaccine or vaccine candidate (noun) – a “potential” vaccine prepared in the research and development (R&D) centres and it can be used in human clinical trials.
  13. volunteer (noun) – participant.
  14. enrol (verb) – register, apply.
  15. contract (verb) – develop/catch, get, become infected with, fall ill with, be taken ill with.
  16. placebo (noun) – it is an inactive substance (with no therapeutic effect) is given to one group of participants in a clinical trial, while the treatment (usually a drug or vaccine being tested) is given to another group.
  17. belong to (verb) – be a member of, be in, be included in, be associated with, be connected to.
  18. eventually (adverb) – in the end, in due course, after some time.
  19. manifest (verb) – indicate, show, display, exhibit, present.
  20. severity (noun) – seriousness, gravity, extremity; strength, intensity.
  21. peer-reviewed (adjective) – relating to a process by which something research or publication is evaluated by a group of experts in the appropriate field.
  22. journal (noun) – periodical, publication, magazine, newsletter.
  23. in short (phrase) – briefly, in essence, in sum.
  24. reliably (adverb) – accurately & consistently.
  25. hold up (phrasal verb) – support, prop up, bolster up, shore up, buttress.
  26. unlike (preposition) – different from, dissimilar to, not like, as opposed to, in contrast to.
  27. fraction (noun) – a (small) proportion/part/amount of something.
  28. ready (verb) – prepare, organize, equip, put together.
  29. m-RNA technology (noun) – messenger RNA technology;  the set of instructions by which cells make all proteins and send them to various parts of the body. mRNA medicines take advantage of normal biological processes to express proteins and create a desired therapeutic effect.
  30. eschew (verb) – abstain from, refrain from, give up, forgo.
  31. infectious (adjective) – communicable, transmittable, spreadable.
  32. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) (noun) – RNA is an important biological macromolecule (nucleic acid) that functions to convert the genetic information of DNA into proteins. RNA only has one strand structure. RNA forms in the nucleolus (the largest structure in the nucleus) and then moves to specialized regions of the cytoplasm (semifluid substance of a cell) depending on the type of RNA formed. (The four major classes of biological macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids).
  33. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) (noun) – DNA is an important biological macromolecule (nucleic acid) that replicates and stores genetic information. It is a blueprint for all genetic information contained within an organism. DNA has two strand structure. DNA is found in the cell’s nucleus.
  34. antigen (noun) – disease causing organisms (bacteria & viruses) and other harmful/toxic foreign substances like insect venom that induce an immune response in the body.
  35. machinery (noun) – organization, system, structure.
  36. the odds (noun) – likelihood, probability, chances.
  37. untoward (adjective) – unexpected, unanticipated, inappropriate, inconvenient.
  38. culture (verb) – maintain (tissue cells & etc.) in controlled conditions suitable for growth.
  39. mammalian (adjective) – relating to a mammal (a group of vertebrate animals and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young).
  40. frontier (noun) – the extreme limit/edge of achievement (in a particular area).
  41. novel (adjective) – new, unusual, different, unfamiliar.
  42. reportedly (adverb) – supposedly, seemingly, apparently, allegedly.
  43. refrigerate (verb) – keep cold, cool, cool down, chill.
  44. lack (verb) – be without, be in need of, require, be short of.
  45. irrespective of (adjective) – notwithstanding, without regard for, regardless of.
  46. for one (phrase) – used for highlighting that someone is thinking in a particular way, even if other people are not.
  47. spike (S) protein (noun) – spike (S) protein is the sole viral membrane protein responsible for coronavirus entry into host cells.
  48. given (preposition) – considering, taking into account, bearing in mind.
  49. breakthrough (noun) – very important/significant development or progress.
  50. keep a watch (phrase) – guard, vigil, lookout.
  51. platform technology (noun) – the technology developed and owned by a company relating to product (e.g. drug, vaccine  etc.) formulation processes and techniques. It also means any Know-How or Patent Right that claims or covers a method, process or other technology (in a product development).
  52. expertise (noun) – proficiency, skill, knowledge, command.
  53. rudimentary (adjective) – basic, elementary, primary, fundamental.

Note:

 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s word list-2 The Hindu Editorial (Dose of optimism) – Nov 11, 2020:

The Hindu Editorial (Dose of optimism) - Nov 11, 2020 The Hindu Editorial (Dose of optimism) - Nov 11, 2020 The Hindu Editorial (Dose of optimism) - Nov 11, 2020

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