The Hindu Editorial (Caution and optimism) – Jun 28, 2021

he Hindu Editorial (Caution and optimism) – Jun 28, 2021

India, with the second highest number of cases globally and third highest deaths, is seeing about 50,000 cases being added every day. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s word list-2 for The Hindu Editorial (Caution and optimism) – Jun 28, 2021.

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Courtesy: The Hindu

The Hindu Editorial (Caution and optimism) – Jun 28, 2021:

  1. optimism (noun) – hopefulness, hope, confidence, positive attitude, buoyancy.
  2. vaccination (noun) – treatment with a vaccine to protect against a particular disease; immunization.
  3. preventive (adjective) – preventative, precautionary, protective.
  4. far from (phrase) – not, not at all.
  5. lockdown (noun) – an emergency protocol implemented by the authorities that prevents people from leaving from a place; An extended state of confinement/encirclement/isolation of a person by the authority.
  6. seed (verb) – cause something to develop.
  7. seed the ground (phrase) – prepare the ground, make it easier for something to develop.
  8. potential (adjective) – possible, likely, prospective, probable.
  9. context (noun) – circumstances, conditions, situation.
  10. modelling (noun) – the modelling of infectious diseases is a tool that has been used to study the mechanisms by which diseases spread, to predict the future course of an outbreak and to evaluate strategies to control an epidemic.
  11. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) (noun) – the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest medical research bodies in the world. As early as in 1911, the Government of India set up the Indian Research Fund Association (IRFA) with the specific objective of sponsoring and coordinating medical research in the country. It was redesignated in 1949 as the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  12. wary (adjective) – cautious, careful, circumspect.
  13. devastating (adjective) – harmful, damaging; destructive, ruinous, disastrous, catastrophic.
  14. find out (phrasal verb) – observe, notice, note, get to know.
  15. trifecta (noun) – a particular situation in which you have to deal with three important) things and achieve your purpose. (trifecta generally means a bet placed on a horse race in which the bettor must predict which horses will finish first, second, and third, in the exact order).
  16. scenario (noun) – situation, background, context.
  17. converge (verb) – meet, intersect, come together, connect, coincide.
  18. immunity (noun) – the body’s defense against infections; protection, resistance.
  19. variant (noun) – different or form or version or mutant of something (virus).
  20. (effective) reproductive number (R) (noun) – the average number of secondary cases per infectious case in a population made up of both susceptible and non-susceptible hosts.
  21. pass on (phrasal verb) – give someone an infectious illness.
  22. extinguish (verb) – eradicate, eliminate, wipe out, remove, put an end to.
  23. transmissibility (noun) – the quality/characteristic/trait of a disease being able to spread from one person to another.
  24. so far (phrase) – until now, up to the present, up to this point.
  25. buffer (verb) – lessen, diminish, moderate, mitigate.
  26. vaccine (noun) – a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease.
  27. roll out (phrasal verb) – launch, introduce, organize, inaugurate (something officially).
  28. in a way (phrase) – rather, fairly, moderately, somewhat.
  29. symptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with symptoms.
  30. asymptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with no symptoms.
  31. pre-symptomatic (adjective) – relating to a condition/person with mild illness/symptoms.
  32. incidence (noun) – it refers to the number of new cases that develop in a given period of time whereas “prevalence” is the number of cases of a disease that are present in a particular population at a given time.
  33. vaccinate (verb) – inoculate, administer, introduce (with a vaccine to provide immunity against a disease).
  34. unprecedented (adjective) – not done or experienced before.
  35. tide out (phrasal verb) – diminish, lessen, decrease, moderate, recede, ebb, abate, subside.
  36. in that light (phrase) – considering that, taking into account that, in view of that.
  37. projection (noun) – estimate, forecast, prediction, calculation.
  38. infrastructure (noun) – the basic physical or organisational structure for something (to function properly).  
  39. in the event of something (phrase) – if something happens.
  40. uptick (noun) – a small increase or upward trend.
  41. eminent (adjective) – distinguished, renowned, esteemed, notable.
  42. forecast (verb) – predict, foresee, estimate, foretell, project.
  43. intensity (noun) – severity.
  44. vexing (adjective) – annoying, frustrating, worrying.
  45. breakthrough infections (noun) – people getting infections after they are fully vaccinated is when the infections are caused by circulating virus variants, with potential immune escape mechanism, which might reduce the efficacy of vaccines. These are called “vaccine breakthrough infections”.
  46. contract (verb) – decline, decrease, diminish, reduce.
  47. in spite of (phrase) – despite, notwithstanding, regardless of.
  48. sporadic (adjective) – occasional, infrequent, irregular, unpredictable.
  49. real-world (adjective) – become infected with a disease.
  50. effectiveness (noun) – efficacy.
  51. in the light of (phrase) – considering, taking into account, keeping in mind.
  52. delta variant/B.1.617.2 (noun) – a variant of the coronavirus, first identified in India, is renamed as the ‘Delta variant’ by the World Health Organization (WHO) and this variant is reclassified as Variant of Concern (VOC). The B.1.617.1 strain has been reclassified to a Variant of Interest (VOI) and labelled variant “Kappa”.
  53. delta plus variant (noun) – Formally known as AY.1 or B.1.617.2.1, it’s a variant of Delta (B.1.617.2), which was first identified in India. It has an additional mutation called K417N, which has previously been identified in the Beta variant (first found in South Africa) and the Gamma variant (first detected in Brazil). These variants are characterised as being highly infectious and may reduce the potency of vaccines.
  54. infectious (adjective) – spreading, contagious, communicable, transmittable.
  55. coronavirus (CoV) (noun) – a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. (Courtesy: WHO)
  56. social/physical distancing (noun) – a term that means actively avoiding crowded public places, is a key element in decreasing the rapid spread of COVID-19. This is an effort intended to limit exposure by reducing face-to-face contact and preventing spread among people in community settings.
  57. defence (noun) – protection, shielding, safeguarding.
  58. foreseeable (adjective) – predictable, expected, anticipated.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in a different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

The Hindu Editorial (Caution and optimism) – Jun 28, 2021:

The Hindu Editorial (Caution and optimism) – Jun 28, 2021
The Hindu Editorial (Caution and optimism) – Jun 28, 2021
The Hindu Editorial (Caution and optimism) – Jun 28, 2021

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