The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021

The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021

One of the oldest, most pernicious and widespread forms of abuse of state power in India involves the police and enforcement agencies selectively… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”. Below is today’s advanced word list-1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021.

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Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021:

  1. prosecution (noun) – legal actionlegal proceeding, legal case.
  2. selective (adjective) – discriminating, choosy, particular.
  3. selective prosecution (noun) – the illegal selection of accused based on grounds prohibited by the Constitution is called “selective prosecution”.
  4. threshold (noun) – it is an amount, level, or limit of something. Once the threshold is reached, something else happens or changes. point of entry, starting point.
  5. abuse (noun) – misuse, misapplication, misemployment, mishandling.
  6. state power (noun) – police power, the capacity of a state to regulate behaviours and enforce order within its territory.
  7. pernicious (adjective) – harmful, damaging, destructive.
  8. ideological (adjective) – relating to a system of ideas.
  9. dispensation (noun) – system, organization.
  10. interrogate (verb) – question, cross-examine, probe.
  11. humiliate (verb) – embarrass, degrade, crush, humble, make ashamed.
  12. harass (verb) – persecute, disturb, trouble, bother, torment.
  13. imprison (verb) – incarcerate, put in prison, send to prison, jail.
  14. ostensibly (adverb) – apparently, seemingly, supposedly.
  15. ground (noun) – reason, factor, basis, rationale, premise.
  16. spare (verb) – refrain from, avoid, not harm, leave unaffected/untouched.
  17. bail (noun) – conditional, temporary release of an arrested/imprisoned person when a specified amount of security is deposited or pledged (as cash or property) to ensure his/her appearance in court when required.
  18. irony (noun) – paradox, incongruity, peculiarity; contradiction, a strange/funny situation where things are happening the other way around (than expected).
  19. appellant (noun) – petitioner, litigant, complainant.
  20. unpalatable (adjective) – disagreeable, unpleasant, distressing.
  21. scores of (noun) – a lot, a great amount, a great number, a large amount, a large number, great quantities.
  22. bail out (phrasal verb) – obtain the release (on payment of bail).
  23. languish (verb) – suffer, experience hardship; be abandoned, be neglected, be forgotten.
  24. inhuman (adjective) – harsh, cruel, vicious, severe.
  25. remedy (noun) – solution, answer, antidote/panacea.
  26. acquit (verb) – declare innocent, exonerate, absolve; discharge, release, free (from a criminal charge).
  27. nip something in the bud (phrase) – arrest, obstruct, impede, curtail.
  28. outset (noun) – beginning, start.
  29. illegality (noun) – an illegal act/practice.
  30. self-evident (adjective) – obvious, clear, visible, apparent.
  31. at first glance (phrase) – apparently, seemingly, on the face of it, outwardly.
  32. kosher (adjective) – legitimate, genuine/authentic, real.
  33. infraction (noun) – breach, violation, transgression.
  34. pursue (verb) – engage in, conduct, follow.
  35. legality (noun) – lawfulness, legitimacy, validity, rightness.
  36. prosecutorial (adjective) – relating to the prosecution (legal action/proceeding).
  37. discretion (noun) – choice, option, preference, disposition.
  38. merit (noun) – good point, strong point.
  39. conflate (verb) – combine, abridge/summarize, shorten (too many information into one).
  40. prosecutor (noun) – a lawyer who presents the government’s case against someone accused of a crime.
  41. jurisdiction (noun) – authority, control, power.
  42. Article 14 of the Constitution of India (noun) – it provides for equality before the law or equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. It states: “The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.”
  43. explicitly (adverb) – clearly, unequivocally, directly.
  44. covertly (adverb) – secretly, secretively, stealthily, furtively.
  45. assertion (noun) – statement, claim, proclamation, announcement, attestation, affirmation.
  46. forbid (verb) – prohibit, ban, outlaw.
  47. defendant (noun) – appellant, litigant, respondent.
  48. assail (verb) – criticize, censure, attack, condemn (strongly).
  49. prosecute (verb) – take to court, bring an action against, accuse, charge.
  50. arbitrary (adjective) – whimsical, irrational, casual; autocratic, draconian, anti-democratic.
  51. fall/run afoul of (phrase) – get into trouble, come into conflict with, go against (by not following rules/standards).
  52. vitiate (verb) – destroy, impair, spoil, ruin.
  53. determination (noun) – a decision about, settlement, establishment.
  54. viz. (adverb) – namely, specifically, in other words.
  55. convict (verb) – declare guilty, find guilty, sentence.
  56. trial (noun) – court case, lawsuit, hearing, inquiry, legal proceedings, proceedings, legal action.
  57. uphold (verb) – preserve, protect, maintain; vindicate/validate.
  58. spell (verb) – lead to, result in, bring about, bring on, cause.
  59. doom (noun) – disaster, ruin, destruction.
  60. adjudicate (verb) – arbitrate, judge, decide, settle, resolve.
  61. quash (verb) – cancel, reverse, repeal, revoke, overrule, rule against.
  62. at the outset (phrase) – from the beginning.
  63. affiliation (noun) – partnership, association, coalition.
  64. arbitrary ground (noun) – personal reason.
  65. jurisprudence (noun) – legal system.
  66. trace one’s roots (phrase) – trace the source of something.
  67. unjust (adjective) – biased, prejudiced, inequitable.
  68. discrimination (noun) – prejudice, intolerance, inequity, unfairness (against an individual or group of individuals by society and its institutions (basically in the procedures, policies or objectives) as a whole.
  69. impartial (adjective) – unbiased, non-partisan, disinterested, neutral, fair-minded.
  70. evil eye (phrase) – a curse thought to be given by a malicious glare (threatening look) that can cause bad luck or loss.
  71. material (adjective) – relevant, applicable, pertinent, apposite, germane.
  72. subject to (adjective) – bound by, constrained by, under the control of.
  73. due process (noun) – fair treatment (per established principles & procedures).
  74. Fifth Amendment (noun) – it was adopted on December 15, 1791, is a section in the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution that secures the citizens of the United States from being forced to witness against themselves when they are accused of a crime, being judged twice for the same offense, and being deprived of life, property, or liberty without due process.
  75. race (noun) – ethnic group.
  76. animosity (noun) – hostility, antagonism, enmity/aversion.
  77. unbridled (adjective) – unrestrained, unconstrained, uncontrolled.
  78. erroneous (adjective) – wrong, incorrect, inaccurate.
  79. take up (phrasal verb) – pursue, engage in, become involved in (an activity or course of action).
  80. acquittal (noun) – declaration of innocence, clearing, discharge, release, vindication, exoneration.
  81. draw out (phrasal verb) – prolong, extend, protract, stretch out, lengthen.
  82. upend (verb) – to affect or destroy something completely/drastically.
  83. extinguish (verb) – eradicate, eliminate, wipe out, remove, put an end to.
  84. conviction (noun) – pronouncement of guilt, sentence, judgement.
  85. awaited (adjective) – waited for, expected, anticipated, looked/hoped for.
  86. counter (verb) – oppose, resist, tackle, confront.
  87. politically coloured (adjective) – politically biased.
  88. unleash (verb) – let loose, release, let something go uncontrollably.
  89. acknowledge (verb) – admit, accept, realize.
  90. ruse (noun) – tactic, move, trick.
  91. harassment (noun) – persecution, persistent annoyance, coercion/intimidation.
  92. close/shut the door on (phrase) – stop dealing with someone/something; to exclude one from something totally/permanently.
  93. prima facie (adverb/adjective) – something (first impression) considered as right until proved.
  94. instrumentality (noun) – mode of expression, means, method.
  95. weaponise (verb) – use as a weapon.
  96. Criminal Law (noun) – a complex system of laws concerned with punishment of individuals who commit crimes.
  97. hold (verb) – rule, decide.
  98. entitlement (noun) – right, prerogative, claim.
  99. allegation (noun) – charge, accusation, indictment.
  100. arbitrariness (noun) – the quality of being “determined by personal chance, whim (desire), or impulse, and not by necessity, reason, or principle”.
  101. Article 21 of the Constitution of India (noun) – Protection of life and personal liberty. No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.


 1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from
2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

Today’s Advanced Word List 1 for The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021:

The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021 The Hindu Lead Article (Defending liberty against political prosecution) – Jan 22, 2021

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