A shattered peace – The Hindu (Jun 14, 2017)

A shattered peace – The Hindu (Jun 14, 2017)

Peace in West Bengal’s Darjeeling hills has been shattered again, with the key hill party, the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha, renewing its demand for a separate Gorkhaland state. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1

  1. shattered (adjective) – very upset, worried, distressed.
  2. suspicion  (noun) – misgiving, doubt, qualm.
  3. spiral (verb) – increase, rise rapidly, escalate.
  4. decree (noun) – order, dictum, fiat.
  5. host (of) (noun) –  lot, large number, great quantity.
  6. call out (phrasal verb) – summon someone to do an emergency work.
  7. stay put (phrase) – remain somewhere without moving.
  8. semblance (noun) – appearance; resemblance; similarity (archaic).
  9. purview (noun) – range, scope, ambit.
  10. flush (noun) – a period at which something is new & fresh.
  11. eyeball-to-eyeball (idiom) – face to face or direct (argument).
  12. spell (verb) – lead to/cause, result in, bring about.
  13. refrain (verb) – abstain/desist, withhold; stop.
  14. make inroad (noun) – conquer, capture, win.
  15. clip (verb) – remove, cut out, detach.
  16. ethnic (adjective) – relating to a population subgroup (cultural, national, traditional/folk) with a common national or cultural tradition.
  17. spell out (phrasal verb) – explain, make clear, elucidate/clarify.
  18. quell (verb) – calm, soothe, pacify/settle.

14JUN17_WL

Note:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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The rot in farming – The Hindu (Jun 13, 2017)

The rot in farming – The Hindu (Jun 13, 2017)

To say it is a domino effect of the loan write-offs for small and marginal farmers by the Uttar Pradesh government may be simplistic, but farmers in different parts of the country have begun agitating for waivers. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1

  1. rot (noun) – deterioration, decline; cancer.
  2. produce (noun) – agricultural products, food, foodstuff.
  3. domino effect (noun) – domino effect or chain reaction is the cumulative effect produced when one event sets off a chain of similar events.
  4. write-off (noun) – an elimination of a bad debt from the account.
  5. loan waiver (noun) – it is the waiving of the real or potential liability of the person or party who has taken out a loan through the voluntary action of the person or party who has made the loan (Courtesy: Wikipedia).
  6. in the face of (phrase) – in spite of, despite, notwithstanding.
  7. protracted (adjective) – very long,  prolonged, extensive.
  8. blanket (adjective) – overall, general, total & inclusive.
  9. outgo (noun) – money outlay, expenditure, expenses.
  10. unveil (verb) – present, disclose, make public.
  11. defaulter (noun) – a person who is (purposefully) not repaying banks/lenders’ debt on time for various reasons.
  12. categorically (adverb) – explicitly, directly, out-rightly/definitely.
  13. largesse (noun) – generosity, liberality, great-heartedness.
  14. inflationary (adjective) – tending to cause monetary inflation. inflation (noun) – increase of price level of goods & services & vice versa decrease of currency value.
  15. slippage (noun) – shortfall, deficiency, shortage.
  16. short-sighted (adjective) – narrow-minded, unimaginative, lacking foresight.
  17. angst (noun) – anxiety, fear/wary, apprehension.
  18. holistically (adverb) – comprehensively, fully, totally/entirely/completely.
  19. deflation (noun) – decline, setback, reduction of pricing.
  20. fire sale (noun) – selling materials at a low price when there is a (financial) difficulty for the seller.
  21. cereal (noun) – food grains (rice, wheat, millet, maize & etc).
  22. moderate (verb) – decrease, lessen, control.
  23. tepid (adjective) – unenthusiastic/uninterested, halfhearted, lukewarm.
  24. aggravate (verb) – intensify, increase; worsen/compound.
  25. livestock (noun) – farm animals (cattle, goats & etc).
  26. awash (adjective) – inundated, flooded, swamped.
  27. shrank (past tense of shrink)  (verb) – get smaller, lessen, reduce.
  28. squeeze (noun) – press, pinch, nip.
  29. prudent (adjective) – cautious, careful/wary, circumspect.
  30. flip-flop (noun) – a sudden reversal of something, particularly a policy/plan.
  31. from farm to fork (idiom) – food chain from (agricultural) produce to food (on the table).
  32. irrigation (noun) – supply of water to farm land to grow crops & plants.

13JUN17_WL1Note:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Awks – Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries Blog

Awks – Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries Blog 

You know the situation when you and a friend are talking about someone, and that person overhears you?

In the past, you might have described this situation as ‘awkward’, but now you can describe it as ‘awks’, as in ‘OMG, she was standing right behind me! Awks!’ (pronounced /ɔːks/). For further reading, visit “Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries Blog”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Blog post written by: Jennifer Bradbery.

Courtesy: Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries.

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Know Your English – The Hindu (Jun 12, 2017)

Know Your English – The Hindu (Jun 12, 2017)

How is the word ‘robot’ pronounced? (Samuel Lawrence, Madurai)

The first syllable rhymes with ‘so’, ‘no’ and ‘go’, and the second with….. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

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New Words – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Jun 12, 2017)

New Words – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Jun 12, 2017)

  1. ambient tea
  2. golden milk
  3. mindful drinking

To know the definition and other details of these new words , visit About words, a blog from Cambridge Dictionary.

Blog post written by: Cambridge Words

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: Cambridge University Pres

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Pragmatic step – The Hindu (Jun 12, 2017)

Pragmatic step – The Hindu (Jun 12, 2017)

The Kerala government’s new liquor policy is a pragmatic step that may help boost its revenue and retrieve lost ground in the tourism sector. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1

  1. pragmatic (adjective) – empirical, realistic/actual, practical.
  2. retrieve (verb) –  restore, resolve; recover/regain.
  3. lose ground (phrase) – retreat or lose (a commanding position/advantage) to become less popular.
  4. discrimination (noun) – prejudice, bigotry, intolerance/inequity.
  5. erstwhile (adjective) – old,  previous, former.
  6. toddy (noun) –  a drink made from the sap of various palm tree species such as date palms, coconut palms & etc (sap means plant fluid).
  7. offset (verb) – counterbalance, cancel out, neutralize.
  8. manifesto (noun) – policy statement, proclamation, pronouncement.
  9. abstinence (noun) – self-restraint, self-denial; refraining.
  10. scarce (noun) – insufficient, deficient, inadequate/meagre.
  11. bootleg (verb) – illegal, illicit, unlawful.
  12. unveil (verb) – present, disclose, make public.
  13. undue (adjective) – excessive, extreme, inordinate.
  14. haste (noun) – speed, hurry, swiftness/rapidity.
  15. be on firm ground (phrase) – be sure of one’s aspects or safe in a position.
  16. regime (noun) – government, rule, leadership.
  17. hardline (adjective) – strict, tough, extreme.
  18. one-upmanship (noun) – the art or practice of successively outdoing (do better than) a competitor. (Courtesy:Wikipedia).
  19. faction (noun) – group, group, bloc/wing.
  20. liberalise (verb) – to make something less strict; to provide more freedom in systems.
  21. approbation (noun) – approval, praise, assent.
  22. fiasco (noun) – failure, disaster, catastrophe.
  23. spike (noun) – a sharp increase.
  24. purported (adjective) – claimed, professed/pretended; alleged.
  25. revitalise (verb) –  re-energize, strengthen, renew.
  26. brew (verb) – develop, loom, be on the way.
  27. hooch (noun) – illicit alcohol.
  28. actualise (verb) – fulfil, achieve, accomplish.
  29. on the ground (phrase) – in a situation/place where things are happening really/practically.
  30. pursue (verb) – conduct/practise, undertake/prosecute, follow.
  31. arterial road (adjective) – an important/principal (road/route).
  32. mount (verb) – increase, rise, grow/escalate.
  33. call for (phrasal verb) – demand, require, necessitate/make necessary.
  34. holistic (adjective) – relating to the whole/complete/entire factors; comprehensive, full, total.

12JUN17_WL1Note:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Everyday Grammar: Polite Offers & Simple Past Tense – VOA Learning English (Jun 11, 2017)

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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English in a Minute: Shell Out – VOA Learning English (Jun 10, 2017)

This phrasal verb has to do with money. Learn how to use it in this episode of English in a Minute.

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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Which Came First — the Chicken or the Egg? – VOA Learning English (Jun 10, 2017)

Now, the VOA Learning English program, Words and Their Stories.

In the English language, some animals have come to represent human characteristics. Lions are brave. Foxes are tricky. And elephants are loyal, just to name a few.

Then there are chickens.

The English language has many chicken idioms and expressions. And, for the most part, none of them represent anything good.

For example, a chicken can describe someone who is scared or afraid. Children commonly tease each other about being chicken. They often use actual chicken noises to make the teasing even more descriptive.

The phrasal verb chicken out has a similar meaning. If you “chicken out,” you decide not to do something because you are too scared.

For example, let’s say you and your friends are at a party. They dare you to go on stage and sing with the band that is playing. “No problem,” you say. You’re not chicken, you tell yourself. But as you walk toward the stage, sweat starts dripping down your back. Your heart beats faster. Without realizing it, you are backing away from the stage and running toward the restroom.

You have chickened out.

There are other ways in English to insult someone using chicken expressions.

If you are running around like a chicken with its head cut off you are acting in a crazy way. You don’t seem in control of your mind or body. This comes from the gruesome fact that sometimes when a chicken’s head is cut off, its body can still run around before it dies.

You can use this expression in many situations. To use another party example, let’s say you are planning a big party for a friend. You are in charge of inviting guests, choosing the food and drinks, decorations and entertainment. So, you are in charge of everything! You have a lot to do.

So, you ask your best friend, Christopher, to help. But he’s not a big help. All he can think about is who he’s inviting to the party. You see, his girlfriend is out of town. So, he invites a woman he’s been dating secretly, Liza. You warn him that this could backfire. But he doesn’t care.

The day of the party comes. And things start going wrong almost immediately.

The florist sends funeral flowers instead of the bright party flowers you ordered. The food you ordered is frozen and will not be ready for at least another day. The drinks are warm because you don’t have enough ice. And the lead singer of the band is sick.

You run around like a chicken with its head cut off trying to fix all the problems. When the food delivery man hands you a bill for the food no one can eat yet, you tell him you can’t read it. His handwriting is like chicken scratch. If someone is a really messy writer, you can compare their handwriting to the markings that chickens make on the ground with their feet — we call that chicken scratch.

Finally, you calm down.

You ask a friend to buy more ice for you. You ask another friend to order some pizzas. And then you ask your Uncle Fred to sing with the rock band. He’s older than they are, but he still sings really well.

“Well, I’m no spring chicken,” he says, but I’ll do my best!”

If someone is old, we can say they are no spring chicken. This expression is informal and could be insulting. So, use it with care. Most importantly, we always use this expression in the negative. You would not call someone who is young “a spring chicken.”

This leads us to another chicken idiom. This one is not an insult, but it does describe a bad situation.

What happens when your chickens come home to roost?

First, what is to roost? To roost means to settle down for rest or sleep. We usually use it when talking about birds. Chickens usually return to their homes to rest. When we say your chickens have come home to roost, we are saying that your past wrongdoings have returned to negatively affect you. In this expression, the chickens represent the things you did wrong in your past.

For this idiom, let’s use your best friend Christopher. One of his “chickens” is that he’s been secretly dating Liza. In fact, this “chicken” comes to the party. And so does his girlfriend — the girlfriend he thought was out of town. She sees Christopher and Liza dancing closely together and demands to know what is going on!

His girlfriend yells at him. Then Liza yells at him. Then they both yell at him. It’s awful. You could say to Christopher, “Well, I warned you. And now your chickens have come home to roost!”

But you don’t say this. He’s your friend. And nobody likes to hear, “I told you so.”

Like we said earlier, we usually use “chicken” in a negative way — well, except with this last example. You may have heard people ask: Which came first, the chicken or the egg?

We ask this question when talking about a cause-and-effect relationship between two things where we don’t know which happened first. What is the cause and what is the effect?

We often shorten it to simply chicken-and-egg. You can call something a chicken-and-egg situation or a chicken-and-egg problem.

Here is how to use it. Let’s say you don’t like math. You don’t do very well in the subject at school. You could say, it’s a chicken-and-egg kind of thing. You don’t know which came first. Do you dislike math because you’re not good at it? Or are not good at math because you don’t like it?

This is a classic chicken-and-egg situation.

So, back to the party. People are enjoying the pizza, the drinks are cold and Uncle Fred is rocking out with the band. People are even having fun taking their picture with the “R.I.P.” ribbons in the funeral flowers. Everyone is having a good time.

Well, everyone but Christopher. He’s still busy dealing with his roosting chickens.

That’s the end of this Words and Their Stories.

What does the chicken represent in your language?

Do they represent good things, bad or both? Let us know in the Comments Section!

I’m Jonathan Evans …

… and I’m Anna Matteo.

Anna Matteo wrote this story for VOA Learning English. Ashley Thompson was the editor.

______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

teasev. to laugh at and criticize (someone) in a way that is either friendly and playful or cruel and unkind

gruesomeadj. causing horror or disgust : extremely disturbing

floristn. a person who sells or grows for sale flowers and ornamental plants

backfirev. to have the reverse of the desired or expected effect their plans backfired

rocking outphrasal verb to play music in a loud or energetic way < The band rocks out on their new album. >

This was originally published on the www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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Proper protocol – The Hindu (Jun 10, 2017)

Proper protocol – The Hindu (Jun 10, 2017)

The revision of antibiotics classes by the World Health Organisation in its list of essential medicines is a welcome step in the global initiative to…  For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1

  1. push back (against) (phrasal verb) – oppose, resist, prevent.
  2. potent (adjective) – powerful, strong, effective.
  3. frontier (noun) – limit, boundary, border/side/edge.
  4. foresee (verb) – anticipate, predict, expect.
  5. mitigate (verb) – alleviate, reduce, lessen.
  6. realm (noun) – domain, sphere, area.
  7. stewardship (noun) – it is a set of principles that forms the responsible planning and management of resources. Stewardship can be applied to the environment and nature, health, technology, economics and etc.
  8. deploy (verb) – use, utilize, employ.
  9. as a last resort (phrase) – a final course of action when all else has failed.
  10. underscore (verb) – emphasize, highlight, underline.
  11. framework (noun) – scheme, system, organization.
  12. sensitise (verb) – make sensitive, responsive to, reactive to.
  13. enlightened (adjective) – wise, well-informed, modern.
  14. sanitation (noun) – it generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the  safe disposal of human urine and faeces (Courtesy: WHO)
  15. meningitis (noun) – a serious disease in which the protective membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord infected with most common symptoms like fever, headache, and neck stiffness.
  16. quest (noun) – search, hunt, pursuit.
  17. scrupulous (adjective) – careful, meticulous, thorough/diligent.
  18. adherence (noun) – commitment, attachment, devotion/bonding.
  19. asymmetry (noun) – non-uniformity, unevenness, lack of equality.
  20. affluent (adjective) – wealthy, rich, well to do.

10JUN17_WL1

Note:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
Posted in Editorials (The Hindu), The Hindu | Tagged , | 1 Comment