The Excitement of Three-Part Phrasal Verbs – VOA Learning English (Aug 10, 2017)

EG_10AUG17

Popular music can teach you a lot about the English language.

You may not realize it, but musicians are actually teaching you about English grammar in each song they perform.

Consider this song by the famous reggae artist Bob Marley. It tells about the need for equality and justice:

Get up, stand up. Stand up for your rights

Get up, stand up. Don’t give up the fight

This song is called “Get Up, Stand Up.” It shows you how to use the three-part phrasal verb, “stand up for.” “To stand up for” means “to defend (someone or something) with words.”

Today, we explore three-part phrasal verbs – idiomatic expressions that can be difficult for students of English to understand.

What are phrasal verbs?

As you may remember from other Everyday Grammar programs, a phrasal verb is a verb with two or more words. Most phrasal verbs contain just two words: a verb and a preposition, such as “look up,” which means “to research” or “to search for.” “Look” is the verb and “up” is the preposition.

Note that “look” and “up” are words with literal meanings. In some situations, you would use the literal meaning of “look” and “up.” For example, you can say, “When I looked up, I saw a beautiful bird.” In that sentence, “look” means “to direct your eyes to a specific direction” and “up” means “toward the sky or top of the room.”

But, when used as a phrasal verb, “look up” becomes idiomatic, which means you cannot understand their meaning from the individual meanings of the separate words. Instead, when the words are put together as phrasal verbs, they mean something else.

While many phrasal verbs consist of just two words, there are several that have three words. Three-part phrasal verbs have a verb and two particles. A particle is a word that must appear with another word to communicate meaning:

Three-part phrasal verb = verb + particle + particle

Three-part phrasal verb = stand + up + for

In Bob Marley’s song, the main verb “stand” has two particles: “up” and “for.” When these three words are combined, they become a three-part phrasal verb.

Here is an easy way to remember how to use three-part phrasal verbs: all three words always appear together, and the order of the three words never changes.

So, although using these verbs may seem daunting at first, do not fear! If you learn the most common ones, you will be able to recognize them and use them yourself.

Why do we use three-part phrasal verbs?

Three-part phrasal verbs are important if you want to express yourself in English in the most natural way possible.

You can use many of these verbs in both casual and formal English.

For example, “The meeting lasted three hours. Now, I need to catch up on my work.” To “catch up on” is both casual and formal. It means “to do something you have not had time to do earlier.”

But, some three-part phrasal verbs are more common in casual English than in formal, written English. Listen for a three-part phrasal verb in this song by the blues singer B.B. King:

Oh, I’m sorry for you baby

But you know I just can’t put up with you

This song, called “Get These Blues Off Me,” uses the verb “to put up with,” which means “to tolerate or accept something unpleasant.”

Three-part phrasal verb = verb + particle + particle

Three-part phrasal verb = put + up + with

In English, many songs about love, or love lost, use the verb “to put up with.” But you probably would not use this verb in formal situations. For example, if you reported your noisy neighbors to police, you might want to avoid saying, “I have put up with the noise for a long time.” Instead, you might say, “I have tolerated the noise for a long time.”

How often do we use three-part phrasal verbs?

In social, personal, and professional communication, three-part phrasal verbs are often the most natural and least wordy choice. That is why we use these verbs every day.

For example, when we have not seen friends or family members for a long time, we want to “catch up with” them. We want to learn about the new things happening in their lives.

Note the similarity between “catch up with” and “catch up on.” Yet the meanings are different. Changing any word of a three-part phrasal verb creates a new meaning.

A work situation where you might use a three-part phrasal verb is when you run out of time. In the workplace, you can also run out of ideas or supplies. “To run out of” means “to have used all of something.”

Speaking of running out of time, we are almost out of time for this program. So here are three ideas to help you with three-part phrasal verbs.

Tip #1

The first thing to remember is that these verbs are inseparable, meaning that the three words cannot be separated by an object or any other part of speech. Bob Marley did not say, “Stand up your rights for” or “Stand your rights up for.” And, as we noted earlier, the words will always appear in the same order: Bob Marley also did not say, “Stand for up your rights.”

Tip #2

Changing any part of three-part phrasal verbs changes their meanings. Remember that the verbs “catch up with” and “catch up on” do not mean the same thing.

Tip #3

Now, a final point: The examples we have used today are from American English. Many of these verbs are the same in British English and other forms of English. But remember that some of them may have a different meaning or may not be used at all outside of the United States.

Three-part phrasal verbs can be difficult to understand, but learning and using them will make your speaking and writing sound realistic and natural.

I’m Alice Bryant. And I’m Pete Musto.

 

This program was written by Alice Bryant. George Grow was the editor. We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

You can read more about phrasal verbs here. At the end of this page, you can find a list of common phrasal verbs along with their meanings.

__________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

 

grammar – n. the set of rules that explain how words are used in a language

idiomatic – adj. an expression that cannot be understood from the meanings of its separate words but has a separate meaning of its own

consist – v. to have (something) as an essential or main part

literal – n. involving the common or usual meaning of a word

daunting – adj. making people frightened or less sure of themselves; very difficult to do or deal with

casual – adj. designed for or permitting normal behavior or clothing; opposite of formal

formal – adj. requiring or using serious and correct behavior or clothing

wordy – adj. using or containing too many words

tolerate – v. to let (something that is bad or unpleasant) to exist, happen, or be done

 

Reference

Three-part Phrasal Verbs

Meanings

“Stand up for your rights.”

To defend yourself (with words or other non-violent actions)

“I’m sorry, but I’ve run out of time. Let’s meet tomorrow instead.”

To have used all of something, such as time, a food, product, or concept.

“His mom is not willing to put up with his messy room anymore.”

To allow (someone or something unpleasant or annoying) to exist or happen; to tolerate an unpleasant thing or person

“We are teaming up with the community garden center to bring fresh food to the school.”

To collaborate with a person group of people to achieve a common goal

”He looks up to his older brothers.”

To respect and admire (someone)

”He looks down on everyone.”

To think of or treat (someone or something) as unimportant or not worthy of respect

”I’m looking forward to vacation! We’re going to New Orleans.”

To be excited about something in the future

”That meeting lasted three hours. Now, I need to catch up on my work.”

To do something you have not had time to do earlier

”I can’t wait to catch up with you!”

To learn about new things happening in someone’s life, usually a friend or family member

”I would have gotten away with it, too, if it hadn’t been for you meddling kids.”

To escape blame or punishment

”Let’s come up with some ideas on where to hold the birthday party.”

To contribute, for example, a suggestion or plan

“I don’t feel well. I think I’m coming down with the flu.”

To get sick; to recognize that you are getting sick.

”She broke up with her boyfriend last month.”

To end a romantic relationship

”She made up with her boyfriend yesterday.”

To reunite after breaking up with a romantic partner

 

This article was originally published on the www.learningenglish.voanews.com  and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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News Words: Dissent – VOA Learning English (Aug 10, 2017)

Does your government put restrictions on dissent?

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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I’ll believe it when I see it: talking about certainty, probability and possibility – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Aug 09, 2017)

I’ll believe it when I see it: talking about certainty, probability and possibility – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Aug 09, 2017)

Benjamin Franklin famously wrote that ‘nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes’. We all know how annoying it can be when someone seems to be completely sure about all their opinions, so it is important to be able to express certainty only where it is justified, and other degrees of probability or possibility where they are appropriate. For further reading, visit About words, a blog from Cambridge Dictionary.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Blog post written by:  Liz Walter

Courtesy: Cambridge University Press

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Slow injustice – The Hindu (Aug 12, 2017)

Slow injustice – The Hindu (Aug 12, 2017)

The wholesale acquittal of all 10 persons arrested in connection with a blast at the Police Task Force office at Begumpet in Hyderabad in 2005 must occasion serious introspection on the prevailing gulf between crime and justice. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-2

  1. acquittal (noun) – discharge, release, freeing, exoneration.
  2. wholesale (adjective) – total, outright, blanket.
  3. introspection (noun) – self-observation, self-analysis; contemplation.
  4. prevailing (adjective) – existing, present, prevalent.
  5. gulf (noun) – divergence, contrast, difference.
  6. culpability (noun) – guilt, blame/fault; responsibility.
  7. get away (phrasal verb) – escape, run away/run off, abscond.
  8. suspicion (noun) – misgiving, doubt, qualm.
  9. exoneration (noun) – vindication, freeing (from blame), acquittal, discharge.
  10. trauma (noun) – stress, pain, anguish/suffering.
  11. warrant (verb) – justify, vindicate, validate (a course of action).
  12. credible (adjective) – convincing, acceptable; reasonable.
  13. prosecution (noun) – indictment, accusation, charge.
  14. expeditious (adjective) – speedy, swift, quick/fast-track.
  15. resolve (noun) – determination, firmness, will power.
  16. depose (verb) – swear, attest, declare.
  17. scot-free (adverb) – unpunished, unreprimanded; unhurt.
  18. grave (adjective) – serious, severe; terrible/dreadful.
  19. prolonged (adjective) – continuous, ongoing, persistent.
  20. incarceration (noun) – imprisonment, confinement, custody.
  21. perfunctory (adjective) – casual, uninterested, careless.
  22. time-bound (adjective) – related to a certain moment or era in time.
  23. substantive (adjective) – important & meaningful.

12AUG17_WL2Note: 

  1. Click each one en.oxforddictionaries.com/…ition/foremostof the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Risks to growth – The Hindu (Aug 12, 2017)

Risks to growth – The Hindu (Aug 12, 2017)

Five months after the Economic Survey 2016-17 was released, Chief Economic Adviser Arvind Subramanian has presented the second volume of the annual economic review-cum-prognosticatory reportFor further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1

  1. flag (verb) – indicate, identify, point out.
  2. prognosticatory (adjective) – forecasting, predicting, foretelling.
  3. momentous (adjective) – significant, important, crucial/critical.
  4. roll-out (noun) – official launch / introduction.
  5. sombre (adjective) – dull; solemn, earnest, serious.
  6. cognisance (noun) – awareness, notice, knowledge.
  7. magic bullet (noun) – solution, answer, resolution.
  8. encompass (verb) – include, subsume, incorporate.
  9. appreciation (noun) – increase/rise, gain, growth.
  10. dampener (noun) – discontent, complainer, fault-finder.
  11. deflationary (adjective) – characterized by or tending to cause economic deflation.
  12. impart (verb) – provide, give, offer.
  13. impetus (noun) – motivation, stimulus, encouragement.
  14. constraint (noun) – restriction, limitation, restraint/control.
  15. transitional (adjective) – interim, provisional, makeshift.
  16. retard (verb) – delay, hold back, postpone.
  17. posit (verb) – put forward, propose, predicate.
  18. remedial (adjective) – beneficial, corrective, reparative.
  19. horizons (noun) – outlook, perspective, scope/perception.
  20. remunerative (adjective) – lucrative, well paid/rewarding, gainful.
  21. obviate (verb) – preclude, prevent, remove.
  22. the time is ripe (phrase) – a suitable time has come.

12AUG17_WL1Note: 

  1. Click each one en.oxforddictionaries.com/…ition/foremostof the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Race for Nairobi – The Hindu (Aug 11, 2017)

Race for Nairobi – The Hindu (Aug 11, 2017)

Kenya’s elections typically have not just highly charged campaigns, but they are protracted affairs after the vote too, with fierce contestation over the result and often violence. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-2

  1. protracted (adjective) – very long, prolonged, extended/extensive.
  2. provisional (adjective) – interim, temporary; tentative.
  3. incumbent (noun) – a person who is in office and holds power; functionary, official.
  4. at variance (phrase) – inconsistent, conflicting, contrary.
  5. overhaul (noun) –  revamp, recondition, service/modernisation.
  6. curiously (adverb) – strangely, unusually, surprisingly.
  7. linger (verb) – wait around, stay, remain.
  8. tally (noun) – total, score, result.
  9. returning officer (noun) – a government official who conducts election & declares results.
  10. break down (phrasal verb) – stop working, cease to function/work, go wrong.
  11. grist to the (or one’s) mill (phrase) – useful experience, material, or knowledge.
  12. exude (verb) – emanate, send out, display a strong emotion openly.
  13. cautious (adjective) – careful, heedful, wary/circumspect.
  14. reshuffle (noun) – reorganization, rearrangement, upheaval/change.
  15. mar (verb) – spoil, ruin, impair/damage.
  16. prerequisite (noun) – necessary condition, essential, requirement.
  17. in the light of (phrase) – taking into consideration/account, keeping in mind, in view of.
  18. shortcomings (noun) – defect, fault, flaw.
  19. muscle power (noun) – influence, power/force, strength.
  20. deteriorate (verb) – worsen, spoil, decline.

11AUG17_WL2Note: 

  1. Click each one en.oxforddictionaries.com/…ition/foremostof the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Towards a clean-up – The Hindu (Aug 11, 2017)

Towards a clean-up – The Hindu (Aug 11, 2017)

The Swachh Bharat Mission is a high-profile national programme enjoying extraordinary political and budgetary support. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1

  1. sanitation (noun) – it generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the  safe disposal of human urine and faeces (Courtesy: WHO).
  2. put up (phrasal verb) – build, construct, set up.
  3. fare (verb) – happen, turn out, progress/develop.
  4. lapse into (verb) – deteriorate, decline, fail.
  5. disuse (noun) – non-use, lack of use; neglect.
  6. wipe out (phrasal verb) – destroy, annihilate, eradicate.
  7. deficit (noun) – shortfall, deficiency, shortage.
  8. substantial (adjective) – sizeable/significant, large, ample.
  9. persuade (verb) – convince, influence, induce/prevail on.
  10. elusive (adjective) – difficult to find/define/understand.
  11. comprehensive (adjective) – wide-ranging/all-inclusive, complete, exhaustive.
  12. affluent (adjective) – wealthy, rich, well to do.
  13. segregation (noun) – separation, setting apart, sorting out.
  14. compost (verb) – treat (soil) with organic material used as a fertilizer like organic matter/vegetable waste.
  15. landfill (noun) – excavated pit made to dispose waste material.
  16. pernicious (adjective) – harmful, damaging, destructive.
  17. societal (adjective) – related to society.

11AUG17_WL1Note: 

  1. Click each one en.oxforddictionaries.com/…ition/foremostof the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Castles in the air? – The Hindu (Aug 10, 2017)

Castles in the air? – The Hindu (Aug 10, 2017)

Two months after the India-Afghanistan air corridor was inaugurated with great expectations, news that it has been hit by a shortage of cargo planes is a cause for concern. .. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-2

  1. castles in the air (or in Spain) (phrase) – daydreams; any plan, desire, or idea that is unlikely to be realized.
  2. obstructionist (adjective) – relating to the practice of  purposefully delaying legal procedures.
  3. underwrite (verb) – sponsor, support/back, insure.
  4. tarmac (noun) – a runway; a type of road surfacing material; it refers airport runway here.
  5. perishable (adjective) – relating things, especially foods, likely to decay quickly.
  6. produce (noun) – agricultural products, foodstuffs.
  7. chartered (adjective) – rented/hired (aircraft or ship).
  8. teething troubles (phrase) – short-term/temporary problems while starting a new project.
  9. trilateral (adjective) – involving three nations/parties/groups.
  10. ratify (verb) – give consent (to agreement) or make agreement official; authorize, approve.
  11. tender (verb) – offer, present, propose/support.
  12. circumvent (verb) – bypass, avoid, dodge.
  13. heartening (adjective) – encouraging, boosting, reassuring.
  14. aground (adverb/adjective) – foundered, grounded, stuck/wrecked.

10AUG17_WL2Note: 

  1. Click each one en.oxforddictionaries.com/…ition/foremostof the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Unseemly contest – The Hindu (Aug 10, 2017)

Unseemly contest – The Hindu (Aug 10, 2017)

Having converted a routine biennial Rajya Sabha election in Gujarat into a prestige issue, the Bharatiya Janata Party has created the perception that it lost a high-stakes battle.. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1

  1. unseemly (adjective) – improper, inappropriate, undignified.
  2. biennial (adjective) – taking place/happening every two years.
  3. high-stakes (adjective) – high-risk, dangerous.
  4. covet (verb) – desire, crave, long for.
  5. lure (verb) – tempt, persuade, attract/induce.
  6. bank on (phrasal verb) – rely on, depend on; anticipate.
  7. amidst (preposition) – amid, in the middle of; during.
  8. precedent (noun) – model, example, previous case.
  9. whereas (conjunction) – in comparison with.
  10. statutory (adjective) – mandatory, necessary, essential.
  11. plenary (adjective) – unconditional, unlimited, unrestricted.
  12. segregate (verb) – separate, set apart, keep apart.
  13. legitimacy (noun) – validity, justification, reasonableness.
  14. constitute (verb) – comprise, represent, embody/compose.
  15. run-up to (noun) – a period/time before an important event.
  16. poach (verb) – steal, take, acquire (in an unfair way).
  17. lent (past participle of lend) (verb) – add, give, provide.
  18. compound (verb) – heighten, intensify, increase.
  19. vitality (noun) – liveliness, spiritedness, energy.
  20. pursuit (noun) – aspiration for, quest for, search for.
  21. supremacy (noun) – authority, mastery, power, sovereignty.
  22. boomerang (verb) – backfire, recoil, come back,; when something boomerangs, the result is the exact opposite of what you wanted it to be.

10AUG17_WL1Note:

  1. Click each one en.oxforddictionaries.com/…ition/foremostof the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Rouhani’s challenge – The Hindu (Aug 09, 2017)

Rouhani’s challenge – The Hindu (Aug 09, 2017)

Hassan Rouhani has formally begun his second term as Iran’s President in especially challenging circumstances. Conservatives at home are pushing for a hard-line agenda, . For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-2

  1. daunting (adjective) – intimidating, challenging, disconcerting/ unsettling.
  2. conservative (adjective) – traditionalist, conventional, orthodox/old-fashioned.
  3. hardline (adjective) – uncompromising, strict/tough, inflexible.
  4. consolidate (verb) – strengthen, secure, reinforce/fortify.
  5. turn up (phrasal verb) – increase, raise, amplify/intensify.
  6. heat (noun) – intensive pressure.
  7. clerical (adjective) – ecclesiastical, religious, spiritual.
  8. status quo (noun) – the present situation, the current state, the existing state of affairs.
  9. override (verb) – disallow, overrule, overthrow.
  10. pragmatic (adjective) – empirical, realistic/actual, practical.
  11. overcome (verb) – deal with, master, overwhelm.
  12. brinkmanship (noun) – the art/practice of following a dangerous system to the limit of safety, especially in politics, to get expected results.
  13. antagonize (verb) – annoy, provoke, irritate.
  14. sanctions (noun) – action taken, or an order given to force a country to obey international laws by limiting or stopping trade with that country, by not allowing economic aid for that country, etc (Courtesy: VOA Learning English).
  15. vindicate (verb) – justify, confirm, support.
  16. reciprocate (verb) – do the same, return/give back; equal.
  17. tenor (noun) – the general meaning, content, character of something.
  18. hardliners (noun) – a group/a political party with people who support a strict ideas and they are extreme & uncompromising.
  19. come around (phrasal verb) – recover, revive, wake up.
  20. pursue (verb) – undertake, prosecute, follow.
  21. succumb (verb) – yield, give in, submit/surrender.
  22. provocation (noun) – incitement, prompting, inducement.
  23. live up to (phrasal verb) –  satisfy, fulfil, achieve.

09AUG17_WL2Note:

  1. Click each one en.oxforddictionaries.com/…ition/foremostof the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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