Lines of defence – The Hindu (April 19, 2017)

Lines of defence – The Hindu (April 19, 2017)

n the face of extreme and unreasonable complaints against Electronic Voting Machines by a number of political parties,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1:

  1. line of defence (phrase) – way of defending.
  2. in the face of (phrase) – in spite of, notwithstanding, despite.
  3. corroborate (verb) – confirm, verify, validate.
  4. audit trail (noun) – audit log; a series of paper, electronic files, and other such records that show how transactions are dealt with by an organization from beginning to end.
  5. Voter-verifiable paper audit trail (VVPAT)  – it is a method of providing feedback to voters using a ballot-less voting system. it consists of physical paper records of voter ballots as voters have cast them on an electronic voting system.
  6. interpret (verb) – understand, construe, see.
  7. context (noun) – circumstances, conditions, surroundings.
  8. brush off (phrasal verb) – rebuff, dismiss, reject.
  9. clutch (noun) – group, set, collection.
  10. tamper (verb) – interfere, meddle (to cause damage to something).
  11. manipulation (noun) – plot, trick/tactic, intrigue/stratagem.
  12. encrypt (verb) – convert data/information into code; encode.
  13. burnt (past participle of burn) – produce (a disc/chip) by copying original.
  14. standalone (adjective) – separate, unconnected.
  15. lay down (phrasal verb) – formulate, stipulate; prescribe.
  16. accountability (noun) – responsibility, liability, answerability.
  17. indigenously (adverb) – in an indigenous (originating from native/local) manner, something is produced in a particular region/country.
  18. embed (verb) – design and build (a microchip) as an integral part of a machine/device.
  19. glib (adjective) – plausible, slick, thoughtless/superficial.
  20. rigging (noun) – an act of manipulating/intriguing/conduct fraudulently, particularly elections.
  21. stuffing (noun) – an act of placing bogus (fake) votes in (a ballot box).
  22. revert (verb) – return, go back, regress.
  23. regressive (adjective) – retrograde/unprogressive, negative, unwelcome.
  24. quietus (noun) – something that calms/quiets/soothes.

19APR17_WL1Notes:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Legally enabling – The Hindu (April 18, 2017)

Legally enabling – The Hindu (April 18, 2017)

The HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill passed by Parliament does not guarantee access to anti-retroviral drugs and treatment for opportunistic infections,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1:

  1. empowerment (noun) – accreditation, authorization, validation.
  2. anti-retroviral (adjective) – relating to the drugs that suppress/stop a retrovirus like HIV.
  3. opportunistic infection (noun) – it is a infection that will most often make you sick given the “opportunity” of a damaged or weakened immune system, including people with HIV.
  4. build on/upon (phrasal verb) – develop, create, elaborate (something with using something else as a basis for further development).
  5. enjoin (verb) – prohibit, ban/bar, prevent.
  6. flaw (noun) – defect, fault, shortcoming/weakness.
  7. contract (verb) – develop, get, become infected with.
  8. discrimination (noun) – prejudice, bigotry, intolerance/inequity.
  9. ombudsman (noun) – defender, bodyguard, guardian.
  10. scrutinise (verb) – examine carefully, inspect; investigate.
  11. epidemic (noun) – outbreak; a situation in which a disease spreads quickly and affects many people (Courtesy: VOA Learning English).
  12. scale up (phrasal verb) – increase something in number.
  13. intervention (noun) – action taken to improve a medical condition.
  14. subset (noun) – a part of larger group.
  15. forward-looking (adjective) – progressive, ambitious, reforming.
  16. provision (noun) – term, clause; condition.
  17. draw up (phrasal verb) – compose, formulate, prepare.
  18. exert (verb) – apply, employ, exercise.
  19. obligation (noun) – responsibility, commitment, moral imperative.
  20. frivolous (adjective) – silly, foolish, irresponsible, thoughtless.
  21. generic drug (noun) – it is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use.
  22. footing (noun) – foothold, grip/anchorage, support.
  23. folly (noun) – foolishness, thoughtlessness, lack of foresight.

18APR17_WL1Notes:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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New Words – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Apr 17, 2017)

New Words – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Apr 17, 2017)

  1. Calexit
  2. catio
  3. twodio

To know the definition and other details of these new words , visit About words, a blog from Cambridge Dictionary.

Blog post written by: Cambridge Words

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: Cambridge University Pres

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Outrageous Defiance – The Hindu (April 17, 2017)

Outrageous Defiance – The Hindu (April 17, 2017)

He has brought the judiciary into disrepute, flouted all norms of judicial conduct and thrown an open challenge to the Supreme Court. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1:

  1. outrageous (adjective) – shocking, disgraceful, appalling.
  2. defiance (noun) – non-compliance, disobedience; resistance.
  3. mockery (noun) – ridicule, joking, teasing.
  4. disrepute (noun) – disgrace, shame, dishonour.
  5. flout (verb) – defy/disdain, refuse to obey, disregard (a rule).
  6. intolerable (adjective) – unbearable, unsupportable, unacceptable.
  7. affront (noun) – insult, offence, indignity/snub.
  8. foster (verb) – encourage, promote, support.
  9. harmonious (adjective) – friendly, peaceable/agreeable, cooperative.
  10. suo motu (phrase) – Latin term means “on its own motion”. it is used where a government agency acts on its own knowledge.
  11. erroneous (adjective) – wrong, incorrect, mistaken.
  12. denigrate (verb) – criticise, attack, insult.
  13. sweeping (adjective) – blanket, general, imprecise.
  14. recalcitrant (adjective) – uncooperative, non-compliant, confrontational.
  15. discrimination (noun) – prejudice, bigotry, intolerance/inequity.
  16. invoke (verb) – evoke, induce, cause.
  17. peer (noun) – fellow, co-worker ; same age group people with equal social status and ability.
  18. pertain to (verb) – concern, relate to, be connected with.
  19. barge (verb) – move forcefully; interrupt, intervene.
  20. hurl (verb) – throw, pitch, direct/toss.
  21. volley (noun) – series, string, chain.
  22. invective (noun) – abusive/offensive/bad/swear/foul language.
  23. haul (verb) – drag, pull, propel.
  24. restrain (verb) – prevent, stop, bar/ban.
  25. impeachment (noun) – the act of charging (a public official) with a crime done while in office (Courtesy: VOA Learning English).
  26. grievance (noun) – complaint, criticism, objection/protest.
  27. vividly (adverb) – graphically, clearly, explicitly.
  28. inadequacy (noun) – incompetence, ineffectiveness; shortcoming/weakness.
  29. Collegium system (noun) – The collegium system is the one in which the Chief Justice of India and a forum of four senior most judges of the Supreme Court recommend appointments & transfers of judges. There is no mention of the collegium in the Constitution of India.
  30. infusion (noun) – the introduction/ instilling/imbuing of a new thing.

17APR17_WL1Notes:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Know Your English – The Hindu (Apr 16, 2017)

Know Your English – The Hindu (Apr 16, 2017)

If you are a student, can you use the word ‘colleague’ to refer to a fellow student? (C Sandhya, Chennai)

First, let us deal with the pronunciation of this word. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

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Everyday Grammar: Quoted Speech – VOA Learning English (Apr 16, 2017)

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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English Expressions Grow in the Garden – VOA Learning English (Apr 15, 2017)

Now, the VOA Learning English program Words and Their Stories.

As the weather turns warmer, many people love to head outdoors to dig in the dirt, plants seeds and watch them grow.

Gardening is a very popular hobby. And it is one that produces wonderful results – food for your dinner table and flowers for your home!

Gardens themselves can be very beautiful. So you would think that a garden path is a great place to be. Well, in conversation, it is not. Leading someone up the garden path means you are trying to trick them. You are not trying to show them your beautiful flowers.

Speaking of beautiful flowers, gardeners love to see small buds forming on their plants.

Besides plants and flowers, people can bud, too. If a child is good at drawing and painting, we can call him a budding artist. Or if someone just completed law school, we can call her a budding lawyer. So “budding” describes something that is beginning to develop.

On the opposite end, you stop something from growing if you nip it in the bud. This is a common expression when we talk about stopping something bad and preventing it from continuing. It’s good to nip small problems in the bud before they turn into big problems.

Now flowers that bloom are beautiful to see — even garden-variety flowers.

“Garden-variety” describes anything that is common and not so special. You can have a garden-variety cold — not a serious illness. You can have a garden-variety problem at work — nothing special, just a common problem with a colleague.

Now, a problem that many gardeners have is weeds. Weeds grow easily and can quickly take over a garden. In conversation, we sometimes use “weeds” to mean too many details. So, if you are in the weeds, you are taken over by too many details.

Often, we put ourselves in the weeds. That usually happens when someone knows a lot about a topic.

For example, let’s say a politician is giving a speech on affordable housing. But she gives too much information on the legislative process needed to accomplish her goal. You could say, “She is really in the weeds. People stopped listening 20 minutes ago. They just want to know if they are going to be able to buy a house or not. They are not interested in all these boring details.”

From politics to sports to movies, you can be in the weeds on any topic.

As we said, weeds grow quickly. So do children. So, we like to say a child grows like a weed.

This expression compares a child’s fast growth to that of a weed. Saying a child grows like a weed, does not compare a child to a weed in any other way – like being annoying or unwanted. So, you can use it with family, friends or even at work as you talk about your boss’s child.

Some weeds may not be pretty to look at, but flowers in full bloom are beautiful!

Blooms that appear later than others can be among the most surprising. When a person is a late bloomer, it means they became successful, attractive or developed a skill at a later time in life than other people.

So, being a late bloomer is a good thing. Being a blooming idiot is not. This insult describes someone who is lacking in common sense – severely lacking.

Now, let’s hear some of these expressions used in a short dialogue.

Thanks for inviting me out for a walk. I didn’t know this park had such beautiful flower gardens.

I know! Nobody knows it’s here. It’s like a hidden treasure in the city.

I really need to walk off some of my mom’s home cooking. I ate so much on my trip home last weekend!

How is everyone back home?

Oh, they’re doing fine. I hadn’t seen my sister and her son for a long time. So, it was nice to catch up with them.

How old is your nephew?

He just turned 16 and is growing like a weed. He’s taller than I am now! And he’s so smart. He actually gave me a great business idea that turned out to be the perfect solution for a problem I was having.

Sounds like your nephew is a budding businessman!

He totally is! His ideas have been better than a woman on my development team. I actually had to fire her last week.

What happened?

Well, it was strange. She was fine when you talked with her one-on-one. But every time we met with buyers, she turned into a blooming idiot.

Ha, “blooming idiot” — I haven’t heard that in a long time! What did she do?

Well, at client meetings she would make strange noises, like a bird, when others were talking. Then when she wanted to make a strong point, she would throw pencils around the room. I mean … who does that?

A blooming idiot.

Exactly! And she wasn’t your garden-variety idiot.

What was so special about her idiocy?

She seemed mentally unstable. So, I nipped that problem in the bud.

It’s best to take care of a problem like that quickly. I’m sure you made the right decision. Your business has been really successful. You must really love what you do.

I do. And when it comes to my career, you could say I’m a late bloomer. When I was younger, I had so many jobs that I hated. It took me much longer than other people to find work that I love.

I’d rather be a late bloomer. I went to high school with a girl who had perfect grades, was a superstar athlete and was also the prettiest and most popular girl in school. But I think the pressure to succeed after such a great high school experience was too much for her.

What happened to her?

She kind of gave up. I’ve heard that she’s been married three times, is unemployed and has a serious drinking problem. Sorry, to drag you into the weeds. That’s way too much information about someone you don’t know.

That’s okay. I went to school with a similar guy. It sometimes happens to people who bloom too soon. Good to be a late bloomer!

Right on!

And that brings us to the end of Words and Their Stories. Do you have a favorite garden idiom? Or are you more of a weeds idiom kind of person? Let us know in the comments section.

I’m Anna Matteo.

Anna Matteo wrote this story for Learning English. George Grow and Kelly Jean Kelly edited it.

_____________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

gardenn. a plot of ground where herbs, fruits, flowers, or vegetables are cultivated

hobbyn. a pursuit outside one’s regular occupation engaged in especially for relaxation

pathn. a track that is made by people or animals walking over the ground < We followed a winding path through the woods. >

varietyn. the quality or state of having different forms or types

nipv. to sever by or as if by pinching sharply nipped the dead flowers from the plant : to destroy the growth, progress, or fulfillment of

idiotn. a foolish or stupid person

From Dialogue

walk offphrasal v. : to get rid of a bad feeling or condition by going for a walk

catch upphrasal v. : to provide with the latest information

gave upphrasal v. : to quit doing or attempting something especially as an admission of defeat

Right on! informal phrase / somewhat old-fashioned : used to say that you agree completely with what someone has said

Enjoy singer John Denver singing “Garden Song” on the Muppet Show.

This was originally published on the www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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English in a Minute: Put All Your Eggs in One Basket – VOA Learning English (Apr 14, 2017)

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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Blunt pointers – The Hindu (April 15, 2017)

Blunt pointers – The Hindu (April 15, 2017)

By-elections are no more than pointers to the popular mood. They are not firm trend-setters for a general election. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1:

  1. blunt (noun) – straightforward, frank/direct, forthright.
  2. arrest (verb) – stop, check, restrict.
  3. slide (noun) – fall, drop, decline.
  4. pointer (noun) – indication, hint, signal.
  5. inevitably (adverb) – naturally, automatically, necessarily.
  6. interpret (verb) – understand, construe, regard.
  7. sweep (verb) – win (all the competitions).
  8. best (verb) – defeat, outdo, conquer.
  9. clout (noun) – influence, power, control.
  10. home turf (noun) – home ground.
  11. gratify (verb) – please, give pleasure to, make happy, delight.
  12. at the top of the heap (phrase) – (of a person) at the highest (or lowest) point of a society/organisation.
  13. beat back (phrasal verb) – repel, fight off, repulse.
  14. trail (noun) – path, way, course.
  15. fold (noun) – group, community, company.
  16. breathing space (noun) – elbow room, stop, intermission/interval.
  17. write off (phrasal verb) – disregard, dismiss, ignore (someone/something as insignificant).

15APR17_WL1

Notes:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Courting faith and reason – The Hindu (April 14, 2017)

Courting faith and reason – The Hindu (April 14, 2017)

The Challenger space shuttle exploded in 1986, killing all seven crew members. It occurred because of a design flaw in the rocket boosters of the spacecraft. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-2:

  1. court (verb) – seek, pursue, strive for.
  2. disguise (verb) – camouflage, conceal, hide.
  3. putty (noun) – a mouldable soft substance/material used for sealing.
  4. catastrophic (adjective) – destructive, ruinous, disastrous.
  5. insightful (adjective) – intuitive, thoughtful, profound.
  6. normalisation of deviance (phrase) – it means that “people within the organisation become so much accustomed to a deviant behaviour that they don’t consider it as deviant, despite the fact that they far exceed their own rules for the elementary safety”.
  7. accustom (verb) – (be) used to, adapt, adjust.
  8. embolden (verb) – give courage, make brave, encourage.
  9. abomination (noun) – disgrace, outrage, evil/bane.
  10. pragmatic (adjective) – empirical, real/realistic, actual/practical.
  11. taint (verb) – damage, harm, tarnish.
  12. incontrovertible (adjective) – indisputable, undeniable, unquestionable.
  13. cow reverer (noun) – a person who respects someone/something.
  14. brigade (noun) – group, team, section.
  15. compromise (noun) – agreement, settlement, terms.
  16. milch cow (noun) – milk giving cow.
  17. draught animal (noun) – load pulling animal.
  18. entail (verb) – cause/produce, generate, prompt.
  19. proponent (noun) – supporter, advocate, upholder.
  20. underlie (verb) – be fundamental, basic, primary.
  21. covert (adjective) – secret, furtive, hidden.
  22. yielding (noun) – surrender, submission, giving in.
  23. uphold (verb) – confirm, endorse, validate.
  24. amicus (noun) – a neutral adviser to a court of law.
  25. primacy (adjective) – priority, preference, superiority.
  26. harmonious (adjective) – friendly, peaceable/agreeable, cooperative.
  27. abridge (verb) – curtail; lessen, reduce/decrease.
  28. consonance (noun) – agreement, concord, accordance.
  29. impugn (verb) – challenge, question, dispute.
  30. progeny (noun) – offspring, family; descendants.
  31. haunt (verb) – disturb, trouble, torment/torture.
  32. dissent (verb) – differ, disagree/demur, diverge
  33. stare decisis (phrase) – Latin phrase means “to stand by things decided”. The court to follow the principles established by decisions in earlier/precedent cases.

14APR17_WL2

14APR17_WL2b

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.

 

 

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