China: ‘One-China’ Policy and Taiwan Not Negotiable – VOA Learning English (Jan 16, 2017)

China has criticized United States President-elect Donald Trump for suggesting that the “one-China” policy is negotiable.

Trump’s comments came in an interview with the Wall Street Journal published on Friday. In future talks with China, he told the newspaper, he believes that “everything is under negotiation, including ‘one-China.’”

Under the “one-China” policy, China considers self-ruled Taiwan a part of Chinese territory. Most nations, including the U.S., have diplomatic relations only with the mainland. Chinese Nationalists fled to Taiwan and set up a government on the island after losing to communist forces in 1949 ending China’s civil war.

The United States accepted the “one-China” policy when it established diplomatic ties with China in 1979.

The Chinese government does not have diplomatic relations with countries that have official ties with Taiwan. The United States still has strong unofficial relations with Taiwan, which has a democratic government.

China’s Foreign Ministry reacted sharply to Trump’s comments on Monday. A ministry spokeswoman told reporters any attempt by the U.S. to reconsider the “one-China” policy would be self-defeating.

“Not everything in the world can be bargained or traded off,” the spokeswoman said.

She warned against any nation trying to use the policy to gain a better position in negotiations with China. The spokeswoman said this could harm the “one-China” policy. Such a move would also face “strong opposition” from the Chinese government, people and international community, she added.

Reaction to Trump’s comments also came in official media. The China Daily newspaper said any attempt to bargain over the issue of Taiwan would result in “a period of fierce, damaging interactions.”

If Trump used the “one-China” policy as part of a negotiating plan, “Beijing will have no choice but to take off the gloves,” the China Daily wrote.

Trump’s comments on the policy took place weeks after his acceptance of a telephone call from Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen on December 2. It was the first time a U.S. president or president-elect has publicly spoken to a leader of Taiwan since America’s acceptance of the “one-China” policy in 1979.

China watchers considered the call a sign of possible closer ties between Taiwan and Trump’s administration.

On Sunday, Reince Priebus, Trump’s incoming chief of staff, said there were “no plans” to change the “one-China” policy. But he also said: “Certainly that policy is on the table if China doesn’t also come to the table and work with us on trade, work with us on the South China Sea and what’s happening there.”

Preibus made the comments on the ABC news program This Week.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Bryan Lynn adapted this story for VOA Learning English, based on reports from VOA News, the Associated Press and Reuters. Mario Ritter was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

bargain – v. discuss an agreement or price in an attempt to make it more appealing

fierce – adj. very strong or intense

take off the gloves – idiom to no longer hold back or restrain in a fight or dispute, but to pursue any means possible to win

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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Future Shines Bright for Solar Energy Use in India – VOA Learning English (Jan 16, 2017)

The falling cost of solar energy technology is helping India increase its production of electricity.

Solar energy is electrical power captured from the sun. Last April, India’s energy minister Piyush Goyal reportedly said it is now less costly to produce electricity from the sun than from coal in his country.

The drop in the cost of solar power is also helping India reach its goal of producing more renewable energy.

The U.S. Energy Information Commission says India is the world’s fourth largest user of electricity. However, many of its people still do not have electricity.

India urgently needs to increase its electricity production. But, reducing the country’s high levels of pollution is also very important.

In an effort to meet both goals, the government plans to produce 100 gigawatts of solar power by 2022. A gigawatt is a measure of electrical power equal to one billion watts.

It’sthe size of 60 Taj Majals”

A few months ago, India launched the largest solar power plant in the world in the town of Kamuthi in the southern state of Tamil Nadu.

Global News agency describes the power plant as being the size of 60 Taj Mahals. The plant took less than one year to build.

The power center covers more than 1000 hectares of land. It is made up of 2.5 million individual solar panels. Together, the panels can produce as much as 648 megawatts of electrical power.

Adani Power, an Indian company, financed the building of the plant in Kamuthi.

The solar plant is not India’s only big effort to develop solar energy.

India’s solar mission

All over the country, there is evidence that India’s use of solar power is increasing.

In 2015, CNN reported that India became the first country to operate an airport completely on solar power. That year, the Cochin International Airport placed a solar plant on unused land near some of its buildings.

Now, the airport no longer pays electric bills. Instead, it plans to sell its extra electricity back to the state.

Other airports in India are also using solar power, including an international airport in Kolkata, which launched a two megawatt rooftop solar energy farm in 2015.

At the beginning of 2010, India launched the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission to increase renewable energy, which includes solar. By 2022, the government wants to produce enough solar electricity to power more than 60 million homes.

Last year, India joined the Paris Agreement. The U.N. agreement is a promise by almost 200 countries to help slow climate change by 2030. Part of India’s promise is to increase renewable energy to 40 percent of its total.

Claire Brunel is an assistant professor of economics at American University in Washington, DC. Brunel recently spoke to VOA Learning English about India’s solar growth.

“They’re building an incredible amount of solar and they’re fast becoming one of the biggest – the countries with the biggest solar capacity and definitely the biggest added solar capacity. I mean, they’ve overcome the U.K. already and they’re on their way to overcoming Italy. I mean it’s – it is pretty amazing.”

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has supported solar and other renewable energy sources. His government plans to increase solar power production from four gigawatts to 100 gigawatts by 2022, according to the World Resources Institute.

However, Modi’s main goal is to expand electricity production using all possible sources, including coal and other fossil fuels. Modi plans to double coal production by 2020, according to CNN.

When land is limited

The Indian government also wants to increase the use of rooftop solar panels. Cities are developing plans to use these panels to help make electricity service more dependable.

Cities like Delhi have already announced plans to place solar panels on the roofs of buildings throughout the city. For government and public buildings in Delhi, it will be a requirement. The Times of India reported that Delhi Metro, the city’s underground train service, will put solar panels on the roofs of some of its metro stations.

But, cities are not the only places collecting the sun’s energy on roofs. Rural communities are getting electricity from companies like Simpa Energy. The website ThinkProgress says Simpa and similar companies rent solar panels to individual customers. These panels provide electricity without being connected to central power lines.

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In this Aug. 17, 2016, photo, solar panels are installed on the rooftop of a traditional house in the mountain village of Demul, Spiti Valley, India.

Customers can add credit to their mobile phones to use the panels.

Other companies rent rechargeable solar lanterns to customers very cheaply.

Companies like Simpa are opening for business in states like Uttar Pradesh, one of India’s largest and poorest states.

Claire Brunel says that many developing nations are using rooftop solar panels to get electricity to rural communities, where electrical systems are not dependable.

The less-than-sunny-side

Yet, India still faces serious energy shortages.

The country’s energy needs are growing too fast to be met by renewable sources alone. India’s energy use has doubled since 2000, according to the International Energy Agency.

Brunel says that by 2040, an estimated 300 million people in India will need new electricity service.

New coal plants are being built to provide for this growing need. The country gets more than 60 percent of its electricity from coal. Reuters news agency says India has almost as much coal-related pollution as China.

Brunel says the country’s growing need for energy will affect whether it can reduce its levels of greenhouse gases.

“If – if solar is capturing the growth in electricity basically, then you’re not technically changing emissions. You’re just making sure that emissions are not increasing, but you’re not decreasing them either.

She says India will probably not be able to end the use of coal and other fossil fuels completely.

I’m Phil Dierking. And I’m Alice Bryant.

Alice Bryant wrote this story based on VOA news reports by Anjana Pasricha and Kevin Enochs and other news sources.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

renewable energyn. energy that is comes from a source that does not run out

wattn. a unit for measuring electrical power.

Taj Mahaln. a large white, marble mausoleum located in Agra, India

paneln. a large, flat piece of equipment that uses the sun’s light or heat to create electricity

proximity – n. the state of being near

logistics – n. things that must be done to plan and organize a complicated activity or event

climate changen. a change in global climate patterns caused by an increase in heat-trapping gases resulting from the burning of fossil fuels (such as coal and natural gas)

capacity – n. the ability to hold or contain people or things — usually singular

fossil fueln. a fuel (such as coal, oil, or natural gas) that is formed in the earth from dead plants or animals

customern. someone who buys goods or services from a business

lanternn. a light that has usually a glass covering and that can be carried by a handle

shortagen. a state in which there is not enough of something that is needed

greenhouse gasn. a gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation

emissionsn. the act of producing or releasing something, such as a gas or chemical element, from a source

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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New Words – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Jan 16, 2017)

New Words – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Jan 16, 2017)

  1. escape room
  2. night czar
  3. micro-adventure

To know the definition and other details of these new words , visit About words, a blog from Cambridge Dictionary.

Blog post written by: Cambridge Words

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: Cambridge University Pres

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It’s time to say ‘Irasshaimase’ to Japan – The Hindu (Jan 16, 2017)

It’s time to say ‘Irasshaimase’ to Japan – The Hindu (Jan 16, 2017)

“Japan- India relationship is blessed with the largest potential for development of any bilateral relationship anywhere in the world”

Speech by H.E. Shinzo Abe – Prime Minister of Japan at the Parliament of the Republic of India, August 22, 2007 .

For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-2:

  1. irasshaimase (noun) – (Japanese word) welcome, come in.
  2. imperative (noun) – condition, necessity, obligation/duty.
  3. suboptimal (adjective) – below the highest standard/level/quality.
  4. promising (adjective) – good, encouraging, favourable.
  5. high point (noun) – significant/important part (of a period of time).
  6. rejuvenate (verb) – revive/renew, restore; reorganize.
  7. blossom into (verb) – develop, grow, progress.
  8. sanctions (noun) – action taken, or an order given to force a country to obey international laws by limiting or stopping trade with that country, by not allowing economic aid for that country, etc (Courtesy: VOA Learning English).
  9. keel (noun) – base, bottom, underside.
  10. consensus (noun) – agreement, concurrence, concord.
  11. look east policy (noun) – Look East Policy (LEP), which started in early 1990s, marked India’s focus on the extended neighbourhood in the ASEAN. LEP, which was originally conceived as an economic initiative, has gained political, strategic and cultural dimensions and established institutional mechanisms for dialogue and cooperation (Courtesy: Website of The Ministry of External Affairs, India).
  12. strategic (global) partnership – it is a long-term interaction between two countries based on political, economic, social and historical factors (Courtesy: IDSA (Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses)).
  13. the turn of the century (phrase) – the beginning of a new century.
  14. stem from (verb) – arise from, originate from, come from.
  15. aggregate (adjective) – total, whole, overall.
  16. outward investment (noun) – investment from one area, country etc into another (Courtesy: Financial Times).
  17. cumulative (adjective) – increasing, growing; collective/aggregate.
  18. constrain (verb) – restrict, limit, curb /restrain.
  19. red tape (noun) – excessive official procedure, excessive regulation, excessive govermental formality.
  20. ad hoc (adjective) – a solution/plan designed for a specific problem or task after something happened; extemporary, makeshift;
  21. intervention (noun) – interference, intrusion, meddling.
  22. uninterrupted (adjective) – continuous, undisturbed, sustained.
  23. incredible (adjective) – unbelievable, implausible, unimaginable.
  24. facilitate (verb) – accelerate, promote, encourage.
  25. prefecture (noun) – district like region/area in some countries (particularly in Japan & France).
  26. benchmark (verb) – compare & evaluate (something) with an industry standards.
  27. Abenomics (noun) – a set of measures taken by Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe after his December 2012 re-election to the post.
  28.  shining (adjective) – brilliant, excellent, splendid.
  29. feasibility (noun) – practicality, viability, achievability.
  30. ambitious (adjective) – demanding, formidable, challenging.
  31. revival (noun) – improvement, betterment; restoration/re-establishment.
  32. disbursement (noun) – spending, expending, paying out.
  33. metrics (noun) – (in business) a set of numbers (statistical) used to measure results.
  34. powerhouse (noun) – a person/country with a lot of energy, power & influence.

16JAN17_WL2

16JAN17_WL2BNote:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
Posted in Business (The Hindu), The Hindu | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Drowned by state failure – The Hindu (Jan 16, 2017)

Drowned by state failure – The Hindu (Jan 16, 2017)

The boat disaster in the Ganga on Makar Sankranti day that killed at least 24 people is another reminder that safety in public transport remains a low priority for governments. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1:

  1. drown (verb) – kill (a person) knowingly by drowning.
  2. inland waterways (noun) – rivers/canals/backwaters/creeks which are used for travel by water within the limits of a country.
  3. toll (noun) – number, count, total/sum (of deaths or casualties due to an accident, natural calamity & etc).
  4. cram into (verb) – crowd, pack/jam, enter (a place which is a small one to accommodate all).
  5. vessel (noun) – boat, ship, yacht/craft.
  6. kin (noun) – relatives, relations, family.
  7. obscure (verb) – hide, conceal, cover/mask.
  8. paradigm shift (noun) – a fundamental and important change with new ideas/thinking/ways.
  9. freight (noun) – cargo, load, consignment.
  10. measure (noun) – statute, (legislative) bill, law.
  11. incumbent (noun) – a person who is in office and holds power, functionary, official.
  12. provision (noun) – term, clause, stipulation.
  13. own (verb) – admit, accept, acknowledge.
  14. heart-rending (adjective) – distressing, heartbreaking, painful.
  15. spectacle (noun) – scene, sight/view, event.
  16. perish (verb) – die, lose one’s life, be killed/expire (suddenly).
  17. stir (verb) – spur, rouse, awaken.
  18. conscience (noun) – morals, standards, values/principles.

16JAN17_WL1Note:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
Posted in Editorials (The Hindu), The Hindu | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Know Your English – The Hindu (Jan 15, 2017)

Know Your English – The Hindu (Jan 15, 2017)

“Nice to see you so relaxed. No office today, I suppose?”

“What gives you that idea? I’m waiting for Nishant to pick me up.” For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

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Everyday Grammar: Simple Past Yes/No Questions – VOA Learning English (Jan 15, 2017)

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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Very Large Crack Creating Iceberg in Antarctica – VOA Learning English (Jan 15, 2017)

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This Nov. 10, 2016 aerial photo released by NASA, shows the growing crack in the Antarctic Peninsula’s Larsen C ice shelf. (Photo Courtesy: NASA photographs by John Sonntag.)

Researchers say part of a very large shelf of ice on Antarctica could soon break off – and become an iceberg.

A team of scientists is closely watching part of the Larsen Ice Shelf, off the coast of northwestern Antarctica. The area is connected to land, but floats on seawater instead of sitting on top of the continent.

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Larsen C Ice Shelf showing break line. Courtesy MIDAS Project.

The piece of ice, known as Larsen C Ice Shelf, caught the attention of researchers a few years ago. There are many cracks, or signs of weakness, in the ice. In 2010, the scientists found that one crack was getting bigger.

Martin O’Leary is with Swansea University in Wales. He spoke with VOA about the work he does with Project MIDAS, the British group studying Antarctica.

“We became concerned in 2014 when it started to become obvious that this crack was going to produce a particularly large iceberg, much larger than we had initially expected.”

Icebergs are huge masses of ice that break off from glaciers in coastal areas. Glaciers begin as fallen snow. Over time, the weight of the snow creates large, thickened ice masses. When the ice becomes too heavy, pieces break off and float in the sea.

The crack on the Larsen C Ice Shelf has been growing quickly — by an estimated 18 kilometers just in the second half of December.

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Antarctica Larsen Ice Shelf Crack: This Nov. 10, 2016 aerial photo released by NASA, shows a rift in the Antarctic Peninsula’s Larsen C ice shelf. (Photo Courtesy NASA).

And how large will this future iceberg be?

Martin O’Leary thinks it will be between nine to 12 percent of the ice shelf, which is about the size of some countries.

The iceberg will be “around 5,000 square kilometers,” he says.

That would be about the size of Lebanon. Now, only 20 kilometers of ice still connects the iceberg to the shelf.

What is causing the break?

By nature, ice is brittle and can break easily. O’Leary says the process that is opening the large crack is a natural one.

“The crack is a natural phenomenon, the ice by its nature is quite brittle, it tends to crack quite a lot. What happens is that snow and bits of debris fall into the crack and that pushes the crack open even wider, so the force of that crack ratchets the crack open and that’s what causes it to get longer and longer.”

He adds that “to the best of our knowledge,” this break is not a product of climate change. Some studies have linked rising temperatures to human activities.

The new iceberg is not expected to change ocean levels around the world. That is because the iceberg is already sitting in the sea and it will not displace more water.

Once it breaks off, the iceberg will slowly move away. Over time, it will break into smaller pieces, which will move north, and eventually melt away.

What is the Larsen Ice Shelf?

The Larsen Ice Shelf is a series of shelves, all of which are linked together. They may be connected to the land, but float out over the sea. They grew out from the Antarctic mainland over tens of thousands of years. And over time, pieces have broken off.

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Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctica

Larsen A, the most northern and smallest part, broke free from the continent in 1995.

There was the larger Larsen B Ice Shelf. It was an estimated 3,200 square kilometers of ice, and about 220 meters thick. But it broke up into the sea in 2002.

Now, Larsen C is larger still, with ice thickness averaging 350 meters. This is where the piece is that is about to break off of the ice shelf.

O’Leary says “the honest answer is we don’t know” when the iceberg will break off. But scientists think it will probably be in the next few months.

While they call this a “natural process,” O’Leary explains that this break could make the area more vulnerable to climate change in the future.

“What we’re worried about is that this will put the ice shelf in a more unstable position, which will mean that the effects of climate change, such as melting of the ice, thinning of the ice, those can have a stronger effect now.”

And that means there could be more events like this one, with large parts of the ice shelf falling into the sea. It could lead to the collapse of the whole shelf.

There is not enough information to predict if or when that might happen. But if it does, it is possible that the ice, which the Larsen shelf holds on the land, could start sliding into the sea.

Predictions suggest that could raise world sea levels by as much as 10 centimeters.

I’m Anne Ball.

Kevin Enochs wrote this story for VOA News. Anne Ball reported this story for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section and visit us on our Facebook page.

_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

crack – n. a line in the surface of something that is broken but not separated into pieces

obvious – adj. easy to see or notice

initially – adv. occurring at the beginning of something

phenomenon – n. something that can be observed and studied that is unusual or difficult to understand or explain fully

ratchet – v. to increase or decrease something by a series of small amounts

vulnerable – adj. easily hurt or harmed physically, mentally or emotionally

This article was originally published on the www.learningenglish.voanews.com  and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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Chinese Commission Approves Anti-Corruption Rules – VOA Learning English (Jan 15, 2017)

The Chinese Communist Party has approved a new set of rules that will increase the party’s control and supervision of corruption investigators.

The rules were passed last Sunday at the close of a meeting of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, or CCDI.

The new regulations are meant to standardize corruption investigations. They also set guidance for the anti-corruption teams.

However, some observers question whether the regulations will uncover corrupt investigators. Instead, they say, the rules will ensure that party members are obedient to the party’s leader, Chinese President Xi Jinping.

Rules cover investigations and those who carry them out

The rules are said to offer guidance on how to deal with information on corruption and how to review cases. They reportedly explain what investigators should do with financial assets or other property gained through corrupt activities.

Investigators also will be advised to keep audio and video recordings of their questioning of suspects or witnesses. The investigators are to keep records of those who ask questions about or try to interfere with their cases.

A report on the new regulations was published last weekend on the commission’s website.

A document about the meeting said, “Trust (in disciplinary officials) cannot replace supervision.”

This week, the deputy secretary of the CCDI spoke to the media. Wu Yuliang restated the desire of party leader Xi that officials continue their campaign against both “tigers and flies.” This means fighting corruption among powerful leaders and low-level officials.

Wu added that the party’s fight against corruption has gained “crushing momentum” and has made “huge progress.”

Wu said the party punished 0.43 percent of its 88 million members in 2016, an increase from 0.18 percent of its members the year before.

He said that, in the past 4 years, 2,500 corrupt officials who fled overseas have been returned to China. He said $1.25 billion worth of stolen money and property had been returned.

Wu was asked if China would develop a supervisory system that would act independently of the Communist Party. He answered that such a system would be ill-suited to China’s socialist system.

Jean-Pierre Cabestan is a political science professor at Hong Kong Baptist University. He says the new rules deal with concerns that anti-corruption investigators have become too powerful.

However, he says it remains to be seen if the rules will better control CCDI members.

Cabestan says such measures do help Xi Jinping increase his power.

“The discipline inspection work is not only a kind of business to make party members and party leaders cleaner, but also (to) make them obedient to the current political leadership.”

In another move, Xi’s former speechwriter, Li Shulei, was named head of Beijing’s anti-corruption commission. The appointment shows that the Chinese president is seeking to increase his control of the party, according to Cabestan.

I’m Mario Ritter.

Joyce Huang reported this story for VOANews.com. Mario Ritter adapted her report for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

_____________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

standardize – v. to make a group of processes meet a standard, or a level that is considered acceptable

review – v. to carefully look over, to study or consider the qualities of something

momentum – n. the force with which something continues to move once it is set in motion

ill-suited – adj. not well matched

assetn. a valuable person or thing; the property of a person, a group or business

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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“Important Definitions” We Learnt Last Week (Jan 08-14, 2017)

Have you been reading the posts? To refresh our memory, here is a list of important definitions which we learnt last week (Jan 08-14, 2017).

08JAN-14JAN17_ID1_Page_1

08JAN-14JAN17_ID2Note:

  1. Visit www.oxforddictionaries.com to know the words’ definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
Posted in Important Definitions, Words and Words only | Tagged , | Leave a comment