India’s poor sanitation is damaging millions of children. There’s no excuse – The Guardian (Aug 09, 2016)

India’s poor sanitation is damaging millions of children. There’s no excuse – The Guardian (Aug 09, 2016)

Earlier this year, in a sweltering classroom in Delhi, I met a young Indian boy named Ram. His father is a watchman in a government apartment block, and the family live in the building’s garage. But there is no toilet, so Ram, a small, whipsmart and endearingly cheeky boy, must cross two busy highways to get to the overcrowded public toilet in a nearby slum. For further reading, visit “The Guardian”.

Article Written by: .

Courtesy: Guardian News & Media Ltd.

Word List:



  1. Sanitation (noun) – it generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the  safe disposal of human urine and faeces (Courtesy: WHO)
  2. Sweltering (adjective) – very hot.
  3. Whipsmart (adjective) – extremely intelligent/clever.
  4. Endearingly (adverb) – charmingly, admiredly, pleasantly.
  5. Cheeky (adjective) – impudent, bold; somewhat disrespectful & rude but in an amusing way.
  6. Sibling (noun) – brother or sister.
  7. Defecation (noun) – excretion, discharging faeces/stools/bodily waste; going to the lavatory/toilet/loo.
  8. Shrug (verb) – a gesture (by raising and lowering shoulders) to express doubt/ignorance.
  9. Lament (noun) – complaint; wail, moan, crying.
  10. Salivate (verb) – thirsting (desiring strongly) for something.
  11. Caught Short (phrase) – unprepared for.
  12. Stunted – children who are too short for their age; (stunting – low weight for age).
  13. Toddler (noun) – a young child.
  14. Faecal (adjective) – relating to faeces/stools/bodily waste.
  15. Excrement (noun) – faeces, excreta, stools, droppings, waste matter.
  16. Parasite cysts – a type of tapeworms’ growth in intestines/stools.
  17. Ingest (verb) – take into the body.
  18. Ensue (verb) – result, happen, occur.
  19. Nourishment (noun) – nutrition, food, sustenance.
  20. Malnutrition (noun) – undernourishmentundernutrition, poor/unhealthy/inadequate diet.
  21. Searing (adjective) – critical, strong, fierce.
  22. Indifference (noun) – lack of concern/interest, apathy, disregard, carelessness.
  23. Ethnicity (noun) – a particular (linguistic, ancestral, cultural, social) ethnic group.
  24. School (verb) – educate, teach, instruct.
  25. Gesture (verb) – signal, make a gesture, make a sign, motion.
  26. Trinket (noun) – inexpensive household ornament, toy, worthless object.
  27. Thriving (adjective) – growing, prosperous; flourishing.
  28. Look through (phrasal verb) – to pretend like you do not see something; snub, ignore, disdain, look past, avoid, brush off.
  29. Marginal (adjective) – minor, insignificant, lower class.
  30. Sophisticated (adjective) – attractive, interesting, appealing.
  31. Groundbreaking (adjective) – innovative, pioneering, unique, new.
  32. Head off (phrasal verb) – turn aside, turn away, draw away.
  33. Window (noun) – a situation/condition/opportunity (to understand something which is unknown).
  34. Opaque (adjective) – difficult/hard to understand.
  35. Tolerate (verb) – allow, permit, authorize, approve.
  36. Through a looking-glass (phrase) – the other side (of something) which is strange/peculiar.


  • Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from .
  • Definitions (elementary level)  & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press.


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