Noun Clauses in Everyday Speech – VOA Learning English (Apr 20, 2017)

EG_20APR17

From VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.

Almost every American has seen or heard of the movie “Forrest Gump.”

The film is a touching story about the life of a man who faces many challenges.

One of the most famous quotes from “Forrest Gump” is this:

My mama always said life was like a box of chocolates. You never know what you’re gonna get.

These lines might interest you for two reasons.

First, if you mention them to an American, they will probably know what you are talking about. Second, if you study the lines carefully, you can learn how complex grammar is used in everyday speech.

Today on Everyday Grammar, we are going to explore how Americans use noun clauses in speech.

Just like Gump’s box of chocolates, this report might have a pleasant surprise for you!

What are noun clauses?

Noun clauses are groups of words that act as a noun. They often begin with words such as if, what, why, and so on. These clauses have a subject and a predicate, just like a sentence. However, they do not act as sentences on their own. Instead, they have an effect on a longer, more complex sentence.

Here is an example. Imagine you do not know the answer to a question in your mathematics class. You could ask, “I wonder if my teacher knows the answer?”

In the sentence, the main clause, “I wonder,” is followed by the if – noun clause, “if my teacher knows the answer.”

In this report, we are talking about noun clauses that begin with the words what, why, where, and so on. Let’s call them wh- clauses. In technical language, you could call them subordinators. They can act as subjects, objects, complements, and so on.

The good news is this: Americans commonly use if- and wh- noun clauses in a few expressions. Generally, such expressions have one of the following verbs: know, see, and wonder.

We will use lines from popular movies and short examples to show you how Americans use these verbs with different noun clauses.

1. Know

Consider this line from the 2004 film Million Dollar Baby.

“No matter where he is, I thought you should know what kind of man your father really was.

In the sentence, the word what leads to a clause that comes after the verb, know. This is a common pattern in American English.

If you were to visit the United States, you would probably hear expressions such as “I know what…” or “I don’t know what…” almost every day.

Speakers will also use different wh- words to introduce clauses. For example, you could say, “I thought you should know why I came here.” Or you could say, “I thought you should know where to find the post office.”

You will also hear if-noun clauses with the verb know.

For example, imagine that a person asked you, “Do you know if the museum is near here?” You could say, “No, I don’t know if the museum is near here.”

2. See

Another word that is commonly followed by an if- or wh- noun clause is the verb see.

Consider this line from the 1998 film “The Truman Show.”

“Do you want another slice?

No, I’m okay.

What else is on?

“Yeah, let’s see what else is on.”

Where’s the TV Guide?

Americans will often use the words “Let’s see what….” or “Let’s see if…” to make a suggestion, as in the line from The Truman Show.

At other times, speakers will use “Let’s see …” in an informal way. They do not necessarily mean it as a suggestion. Consider this quote from 1999 film, “The Green Mile.”

“Mr. Jingles? Where you been? Been worried about you, boy. You hungry? Hmm? Let’s go see if we can’t find you something to eat.”

These lines show you how some Americans speak, notably in the southeastern United States. The speaker is clearly not making a suggestion; instead, he is speaking to himself in an indirect way. Although he uses the negative “can’t”, he actually means “can.”

3. Wonder

Another word that is commonly used with an if- or wh- noun clause is the verb wonder.

The structure “I wonder if…” is commonly used to ask a question. Remember the example, “I wonder if my teacher knows the answer.”

Speakers will also use wh-clauses with the verb wonder. Many forgetful people have probably said “I wonder where my keys are?”, for example.

Why these structures are important

Now that you have learned about if-and wh- clauses, think back to the film Forrest Gump.

“My mama always said life was like a box of chocolates. You never know what you’re gonna get.”

Did you notice that Gump uses one of the common grammatical structures that we have talked about in this report?

Although you might not suspect it, every time you watch an American film, listen to American music, or talk to an American, you can learn more grammar.

All of the structures we have studied today are considered polite, and can be used in formal or informal speech. They also can be used in writing.

The next time you are watching an American film, try to find complex grammatical structures like the ones we talked about. Listen for the words know, see, and wonder. What types of noun clauses do speakers use? How do they organize their sentences?

This process might be difficult. But remember this: you know what you should do.

I’m John Russell.

And I’m Jill Robbins.

John Russell wrote this story for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section. ________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

grammar – n. the set of rules that explain how words are used in a language

clause – n. grammar: a part of a sentence that has its own subject and verb

predicate – n. grammar: the part of a sentence that expresses what is said about the subject

complement – n. grammar: a word or group of words added to a sentence to make it complete

challengen. a difficult test or problem

complementn. something that completes something else or makes it better

pattern – n. a repeated form or design

introducev. to use or make something available for the first time;

stylisticadj. of or relating to a way of doing things

politeadj. showing respect to others

formaladj. of or related to serious of official speech

This article was originally published on the www.learningenglish.voanews.com  and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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China Seeks Help to Find Oil, Gas in South China Sea – VOA Learning English (Apr 20, 2017)

The Chinese government is looking to foreign businesses to help find oil and natural gas under the South China Sea.

Yet China expects to meet resistance because other countries dispute Chinese territorial claims to much of the sea. In addition, observers say any oil and gas discoveries might not be very profitable.

Last week, China’s state-operated China National Offshore Oil Corporation made an appeal for foreign help. The company said it wants to work with foreign businesses in exploring for fossil fuels in 22 areas south of the country’s coastline.

When combined, that represents more than 47,000 square kilometers of territory. The governments in Taiwan and Vietnam also claim those waters. Vietnam has been outspoken about its claims since the 1970s.

Foreign oil companies are now studying the Chinese offer, which closes in September. Experts say the companies may be worried that any work they do for China could hurt their ability to work for other countries. And they say the companies may also be worried that any oil or gas they find could be claimed by China’s neighbors.

Thomas Pugh works for the Capital Economics research service in London. He says if foreign companies start working with “China and Chinese firms, they could risk not being allowed to work with other countries…who are disputing ownership of the area.”

Raymond Wu is the managing director of e-telligence, a Taipei-based service that specializes in political risk. He also notes that any oil and gas discoveries could be claimed by other countries.

“The other contestant parties do not accept that China has sovereign claims,” Wu said. He noted that foreign companies must face, in his words, “not only the difficulty or uncertainty of finding oil, but who does the oil belong to? I don’t see many investors willing to get into it at this point.”

In May 2014, Vietnamese and Chinese boats sailed into each other near the Gulf of Tonkin, after China deployed oil drilling equipment in the area.

Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines have been worried about Chinese attempts to increase control over about 95 percent of the 3.5 million-square-kilometer sea. Over the past 10 years, Chinese crews have been creating islands for military aircraft and radar systems.

Companies need costly equipment to search for oil and gas, and it is not clear how much of it they will find.

Zhao Xijun is the deputy chief of the School of Finance at Renmin University of China. He says the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) is working to lessen the risk of exploration by working with foreign companies.

“The first thing is that risk is pretty high and second, the technical requirements are rather high,” Zhao said. “So perhaps the organizations or companies able to participate in this project would face a certain hurdle.”

Experts say falling oil prices would limit the value of any undersea discoveries. World oil prices have fallen from more than $100 per barrel in 2013 to about half that.

The United States Energy Information Administration estimates there are about 11 billion barrels of oil under the sea and 190 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

Over 40 years ago, the Philippines began searching for oil west of Palawan Island, at Reed Bank. In 1984, a Philippine company discovered an oil field in the area. It now supplies 15 percent of the oil used in the Philippines.

Malaysia has found about five-billion barrels of oil and 80 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, more than any other country with territorial claims to the South China Sea.

I’m Caty Weaver.

Ralph Jennings in Taiwan reported on this story for VOANews.com. Christopher Jones-Cruise adapted his report for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section, or visit our Facebook page.

_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

fossil fuel – n. a fuel (such as coal, oil or natural gas) that is formed in the earth from dead plants or animals

outspoken – adj. talking in a free and honest way about your opinions

allow – v. to permit (someone) to have or do something

contestant – n. opposing parties; a person who takes part in a contest

sovereign – adj. having independent authority and the right to govern itself

hurdle – n. something that makes an achievement difficult

barrel – n. the amount of something in a barrel

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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Clouds of prosperity – The Hindu (April 20, 2017)

Clouds of prosperity – The Hindu (April 20, 2017)

The ‘normal’ monsoon forecast of the India Meteorological Department brings the promise of a year of growth and good health for India’s economy and ecology. ,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1:

  1. galvanise (verb) – jolt/shock, excite, awaken.
  2. drought (noun) – dry spell/period, lack of rain, shortage of water.
  3. prospect (noun) – expectation, anticipation, possibility.
  4. reservoir (noun) – pool, lake, pond.
  5. efficacy (noun) – effectiveness, efficiency,  power/ability to give estimated results.
  6. harness (verb) – use, utilise, make use of.
  7. resilience (noun) – strength, toughness; flexibility.
  8. fraught with (adjective) – full of,  filled with, charged with/loaded with.
  9. off the mark (phrase) – inaccurate or incorrect.
  10. El Niño (noun) – it is a phenomenon during which the relationships between winds and ocean currents in the Pacific Ocean change, with an impact on weather conditions around the world (Courtesy: The Earth Observatory, NASA).
  11. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) (noun) – it is also known as the Indian Niño, is an irregular oscillation of sea-surface temperatures in which the western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean.
  12. sustain (verb) – help, assist, support.
  13. livelihood (noun) – income, source of income, means of support.
  14. outlay (noun) – expenses, spending, disbursement.
  15. underscore (verb) – emphasize, call attention to, underline.
  16. holdings (noun) – possessions, belongings, valuables.
  17. irrigation (noun) – supply of water to farm land to grow crops & plants.
  18. distress (noun) – hardship, adversity, difficulty/trouble.
  19. sown (verb) – past participle of sow; plant, seed.
  20. incentivise (verb) – encourage, motivate, prompt.

20APR17_WL1Notes:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Equity in debt – The Hindu (April 19, 2017)

Equity in debt – The Hindu (April 19, 2017)

The advice of the expert committee to review the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act of 2003 requires attention, given India’s track record…. For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-2:

  1. equity (noun) – value, net worth; owned capital.
  2. debt (noun) – liability, financial obligation, borrowed capital.
  3. fiscal responsibility (noun) – the act of creating, optimizing and maintaining a balanced budget.
  4. timely (adverb) – opportune, well timed, at the right time.
  5. born-again (adjective) – relating to returning to a newly proposed idea/belief with dedication.
  6. conviction (noun) – belief, opinion, view.
  7. largesse (noun) – generosity, liberality, bountifulness.
  8. unsustainable (adjective) – undefendable, insupportable, unjustified.
  9. perverse (adjective) – awkward, contrary; illogical, irrational.
  10. entail (verb) – cause/produce, generate, prompt.
  11. crowd out (phrasal verb) – oust, overthrow, remove.
  12. inflation (noun) – increase of price level of goods & services & vice versa decrease of currency value.
  13. tailspin (noun) – increasing chaos, disruption, panic.
  14. brink (noun) – verge, edge, crucial/critical point (beyond which something else (good/bad) will happen).
  15. default (noun) – non-payment, failure to pay, non-remittance.
  16. liberalisation (noun) – removal or loosening of restrictions on something, typically an economic or political system.
  17. fiscal deficit (noun) – the difference between total expenditure and total income of the government.
  18. fiscal stimulus (noun) – Government measures, normally involving increased public spending and lower taxation, aimed at giving a positive jolt to economic activity (Courtesy: Financial Times).
  19. fiscal space (noun) – it is the flexibility of a government in its spending choices, and, more generally, to the financial well-being of a government (Courtesy: Wikipedia).
  20. forthwith (adverb) – immediately, right away; without delay.
  21. pragmatic (adjective) – empirical, real/realistic, actual/practical.
  22. unanticipated (adjective) – unforeseen, unpredicted, out of the blue.
  23. pare (verb) – reduce, lower, decrease.
  24. cumulative (adjective) – increasing, accumulative; collective, aggregate.
  25. solvency (noun) – ability to pay one’s debts.
  26. put paid to ( phrasal verb) – stop/destroy, forestall, thwart.
  27. in tandem (phrase) – along side each other.
  28. macroeconomic stability (noun) – it describes a national economy that has minimized vulnerability to external shocks, which in turn increases its prospects for sustained growth (Courtesy: The Ruet Institute).
  29. swiftly (adverb) – quickly, rapidly, fast.
  30. sit in (phrasal verb) – observe, watch, attend.
  31. clamour (noun) – demands, calls; protests.
  32. loan waiver (noun) – it is the waiving of the real or potential liability of the person or party who has taken out a loan through the voluntary action of the person or party who has made the loan (Courtesy: Wikipedia).

19APR17_WL2

19APR17_WL2BNotes:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Turkish Election Officials Reject Calls for Referendum Re-Vote – VOA Learning English (Apr 19, 2017)


Election officials in Turkey have rejected all objections to last Sunday’s special election on presidential powers. They will not honor calls for a new vote.

Turkish citizens voted on a proposal to amend the constitution and expand the powers of the president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Officials say 51 percent of voters supported the plan, while 49 percent opposed.

The constitutional amendments give Erdogan the ability to create a powerful presidency from the current parliamentary system of government.

The amendments end the office of prime minister as well as the official neutrality of Turkey’s president. They let the president lead a political party, declare states of emergency and set the national budget.

Critics have argued the amendments are almost like creating an elected dictatorship.

The election results have led to protests in Istanbul and other cities. Protesters say some voters marked more than one ballot in the referendum.

Demonstrators are also unhappy with the decision by Turkey’s Supreme Election board during the vote to accept ballots without an official stamp. Under Turkey’s election law, all ballots and the envelope they are placed in have to have an official stamp — a measure to prevent cheating.

On Wednesday, hundreds of people demonstrated on the Asian side of Istanbul. The area is home to many opponents of the president.

Some protesters shouted, “Erdogan a thief, Erdogan a murderer.”

“The vote was unfair,” said one woman. “We don’t want one-man rule. We just want democracy for everyone.”

Similar protests were held across Istanbul. The demonstrations were smaller than Monday, when thousands took to the streets. Demonstrations were also held in other cities, including Ankara.

In general, Turkish security forces have stayed away from the protesters. Troops have powers to stop demonstrations, under rules announced after a government overthrow attempt failed last July. Usually those powers are used to control anti-government protests.

Early Wednesday, security forces carried out raids across Istanbul. Turkey’s state-operated news agency says 19 people were detained for reportedly using the results of the constitutional referendum to organize “unauthorized demonstrations.”

Growing numbers of videos and photographs reportedly taken during the referendum have appeared on social media. Some are said to provide evidence of vote-stuffing. Many pictures are from Turkey’s mainly Kurdish southeast. Much of the area has increased security as armed forces battle supporters of the Kurdish separatist group PKK.

In recent weeks, the pro-Kurdish party HDP urged voters to reject the amendments. Yet, several areas where the party usually has strong support recorded a large number of ‘yes’ votes in the referendum.

The HDP and the main opposition CHP, or Republican People’s Party, have refused to recognize the election results. Both groups had called on the election board to cancel the results.

Prime Minister Binali Yildirim pushed back on Wednesday. He told reporters, “It is unacceptable for the main opposition party not to acknowledge results which the public has already acknowledged.”

[On] Wednesday night, a member of CHP said his party plans to go to Turkey’s top court to overturn an election board decision on the referendum. The board’s members ruled in a 10-to-one vote in support of the election results.

Mehmet Hamidi Yakupoglu is the Republican People’s Party’s representative to the electoral board. He said the CHP won’t give up on voters who opposed the changes. He said the party’s next stop is Turkey’s constitutional court and, if it is unsuccessful there, then the European Court of Human Rights.

The Associated Press reported his comments.

I’m John Russell.

And I’m Jonathan Evans.

Dorian Jones reported on this story for VOANews.com. George Grow adapted his report for Learning English. His story includes information from the Associated Press and the Reuters news service. Caty Weaver was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

unauthorizedadj. without permission; not approved by officials

stamp – n. a piece of paper placed on a document

envelopen. a paper container, often used to hold a letter

acknowledgev. to recognize the rights or value of something

referendum – n. an event in which the citizens of a country vote for or against a proposal on a given issue

vote-stuffingn. the custom of one person marking more than one ballot during an election

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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Japan Proposes Overtime Limit to Fight ‘Death from Overwork’ – VOA Learning English (Apr 19, 2017)

Japan’s government has proposed new limits on the amount of overtime employees can work.

The restrictions would cap overtime to 100 hours per month and 720 hours per year. The plan is supported by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and the reforms are expected to eventually be approved by parliament.

The government has said the overtime limits aim to fight what the Japanese call “karoshi,” or death from overwork.

Japan’s business culture has a long history of demanding that employees work many hours of overtime. An online survey last year also found that most Japanese workers only take about half the number of vacation days they are given.

The dangers of long working hours were highlighted by the 2015 death of an employee at Japanese advertising company Dentsu. The 24-year-old female employee committed suicide after complaining to family about the long hours she had to work.

Public outrage over the woman’s death led to the resignation of Dentsu’s CEO last January. The company’s new chief has pledged to obey all labor laws and carry out reforms to protect the health and safety of employees.

Michael Cucek is with Temple University’s Japan Campus. He says efforts by the Japanese government to improve conditions for workers are seen as a good thing. However, he and some Japanese activist groups believe the proposed limits are too high to truly make life better for employees.

“The number is absurd – that in a single month, one can have 100 hours of overtime, is simply a ridiculous number.”

A government report said last year that about one in five Japanese companies have employees who work such long hours that they are at serious risk of death.

The report found that nearly 23 percent of companies had some employees working over 80 hours of overtime a month. Medical officials have noted a greater possibility of death from work among people working at least 80 overtime hours per month.

The survey also showed that about 21 percent of Japanese employees work an average of 49 or more hours each week. That number compares to 16 percent of American, 13 percent of British and 10 percent of French employees.

Cucek says the woman who killed herself while working at Dentsu is an example of how work isolates many Japanese workers.

“She was living not at home, but in a corporate dormitory. So there was never anybody to talk to. Never any way of her breaking out of the environment where ‘you must work, you must work, you must work,’ was being pressed upon her.”

He said he hopes new overtime rules will send a clear message to Japanese companies that they can no longer demand an environment leading to employee health problems and death.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Bryan Lynn adapted this story for VOA Learning English, based on reports from VOA News, Reuters and other sources. Hai Do was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

capn. limit placed on something

outragen. extreme anger or shock

absurdadj. very silly or foolish

ridiculous adj. extremely silly or unreasonable

dormitoryn. large room with many beds where people sleep

This was originally published on www.learningenglish.voanews.com and reproduced here with permission.

Courtesy: Voice of America

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I messed up! (Phrasal verbs for problems) – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Apr 19, 2017)

I messed up! (Phrasal verbs for problems) – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Apr 19, 2017)

Last month we focused on words and phrases that are used to describe problems and difficult situations. This week we’re looking specifically at phrasal verbs in this area. In a week or so, we’ll look at a group of phrasal verbs that describe how we deal with these situations. For further reading, visit About words, a blog from Cambridge Dictionary.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Blog post written by: Kate Woodford

Courtesy: Cambridge University Press

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Lines of defence – The Hindu (April 19, 2017)

Lines of defence – The Hindu (April 19, 2017)

n the face of extreme and unreasonable complaints against Electronic Voting Machines by a number of political parties,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1:

  1. line of defence (phrase) – way of defending.
  2. in the face of (phrase) – in spite of, notwithstanding, despite.
  3. corroborate (verb) – confirm, verify, validate.
  4. audit trail (noun) – audit log; a series of paper, electronic files, and other such records that show how transactions are dealt with by an organization from beginning to end.
  5. Voter-verifiable paper audit trail (VVPAT)  – it is a method of providing feedback to voters using a ballot-less voting system. it consists of physical paper records of voter ballots as voters have cast them on an electronic voting system.
  6. interpret (verb) – understand, construe, see.
  7. context (noun) – circumstances, conditions, surroundings.
  8. brush off (phrasal verb) – rebuff, dismiss, reject.
  9. clutch (noun) – group, set, collection.
  10. tamper (verb) – interfere, meddle (to cause damage to something).
  11. manipulation (noun) – plot, trick/tactic, intrigue/stratagem.
  12. encrypt (verb) – convert data/information into code; encode.
  13. burnt (past participle of burn) – produce (a disc/chip) by copying original.
  14. standalone (adjective) – separate, unconnected.
  15. lay down (phrasal verb) – formulate, stipulate; prescribe.
  16. accountability (noun) – responsibility, liability, answerability.
  17. indigenously (adverb) – in an indigenous (originating from native/local) manner, something is produced in a particular region/country.
  18. embed (verb) – design and build (a microchip) as an integral part of a machine/device.
  19. glib (adjective) – plausible, slick, thoughtless/superficial.
  20. rigging (noun) – an act of manipulating/intriguing/conduct fraudulently, particularly elections.
  21. stuffing (noun) – an act of placing bogus (fake) votes in (a ballot box).
  22. revert (verb) – return, go back, regress.
  23. regressive (adjective) – retrograde/unprogressive, negative, unwelcome.
  24. quietus (noun) – something that calms/quiets/soothes.

19APR17_WL1Notes:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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Legally enabling – The Hindu (April 18, 2017)

Legally enabling – The Hindu (April 18, 2017)

The HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill passed by Parliament does not guarantee access to anti-retroviral drugs and treatment for opportunistic infections,… For further reading, visit “The Hindu”.

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Word List-1:

  1. empowerment (noun) – accreditation, authorization, validation.
  2. anti-retroviral (adjective) – relating to the drugs that suppress/stop a retrovirus like HIV.
  3. opportunistic infection (noun) – it is a infection that will most often make you sick given the “opportunity” of a damaged or weakened immune system, including people with HIV.
  4. build on/upon (phrasal verb) – develop, create, elaborate (something with using something else as a basis for further development).
  5. enjoin (verb) – prohibit, ban/bar, prevent.
  6. flaw (noun) – defect, fault, shortcoming/weakness.
  7. contract (verb) – develop, get, become infected with.
  8. discrimination (noun) – prejudice, bigotry, intolerance/inequity.
  9. ombudsman (noun) – defender, bodyguard, guardian.
  10. scrutinise (verb) – examine carefully, inspect; investigate.
  11. epidemic (noun) – outbreak; a situation in which a disease spreads quickly and affects many people (Courtesy: VOA Learning English).
  12. scale up (phrasal verb) – increase something in number.
  13. intervention (noun) – action taken to improve a medical condition.
  14. subset (noun) – a part of larger group.
  15. forward-looking (adjective) – progressive, ambitious, reforming.
  16. provision (noun) – term, clause; condition.
  17. draw up (phrasal verb) – compose, formulate, prepare.
  18. exert (verb) – apply, employ, exercise.
  19. obligation (noun) – responsibility, commitment, moral imperative.
  20. frivolous (adjective) – silly, foolish, irresponsible, thoughtless.
  21. generic drug (noun) – it is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use.
  22. footing (noun) – foothold, grip/anchorage, support.
  23. folly (noun) – foolishness, thoughtlessness, lack of foresight.

18APR17_WL1Notes:

  1. Click each one of the words above for their definition, more synonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, phrases, derivatives, origin and etc from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.
  2. Definitions (elementary level) & Synonyms provided for the words above are my personal work and not that of Oxford University Press. Tentative definitions/meanings are provided for study purpose only and they may vary in different context. Use it with the corresponding article published on the source (website) via the link provided. 
  3. This word list is for personal use only. Reproduction in any format and/or Commercial use of it is/are strictly prohibited.
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New Words – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Apr 17, 2017)

New Words – Cambridge Dictionary About words blog (Apr 17, 2017)

  1. Calexit
  2. catio
  3. twodio

To know the definition and other details of these new words , visit About words, a blog from Cambridge Dictionary.

Blog post written by: Cambridge Words

This preview is provided here with permission.

Courtesy: Cambridge University Pres

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